The relationship between occlusion and posture has been and is still strongly debated. This study examines 40 male and female healthy subjects, (11 males and 29 females, average age: 26.27 years, st dv: 3.03) aged between 21 and 32. The baropodometric evaluation was performed with the subject in rest position and in usual centric occlusion. The results obtained were analyzed using a baropodometric platform and Freesteps software (Sensor Medica srl, Rome - Italy) analyzing the podalic load, the foot axis and the foot angles. The values reported show that 80% of subjects in rest position (p-value 0.01) and 70% of subjects in centric occlusion (p-value 0.05) have a greater foot load in the contralateral foot compared to the chewing side; moreover, the foot axis values are statistically significant because 77% of subjects in rest position and 72% in centric occlusion have a foot axis more open on the same side than the chewing one. The foot angles values are not significant. These results could be understood analyzing the activation of the body muscular chains: on the chewing side there is an increase of the activity of the flexion chain with side bending of the trunk. This induces a change of the body barycenter compensated by an outer rotation of the homolateral leg and foot; moreover, the body bending creates a false short leg on the same side, explaining the excess of podalic load on the other side. These values show that the hypothesis of a correlation appears to be likely, although obviously it still needs confirmation and further analysis.
The aim of the present study is to describe a new technique through which it is possible to complete the maxillary sinus lift procedure even in case of severe damage or complete removal of the sinus mucosa using the PRGF-Endoret® platelet concentrate. Eighteen patients (ratio F:M=4:5; average age: 58.2 years; DS: 8.85 years) with severe perforation (more than 10 millimetres of diameter) of the sinus mucosa during the maxillary sinus lift procedure were selected. Normally the procedure is interrupted due to impossible stabilization of the graft material inside the subantral cavity. On the contrary, our protocol foreseen the sealing of the perforation using the PRGF autologous gel membranes or the creation of a new sinus pseudomembrane through which the graft material was covered. The PRGF-Endoret were obtained according to the protocol developed by BTI (Biotechnology Institute - Vitoria, Spain). In 14 cases out of 18 implant fixtures were concurrently inserted while in 4 cases the fixture insertion was postponed after 6 months: 37 fixtures were inserted (27 at the same time and 10 after 6 months). 2 months after surgery the CBCT showed a correct pneumatization of the maxillary sinus in 16 patients out of 18 (89% of cases), while after 12 months the radiological normalization of the maxillary sinus was present in 17 patients out of 18, bringing the healing rate to 94% of cases. Regarding implant healing, 2 out of 37 implants inserted were lost in the first month after the surgical phase, whereas 12 months after prosthesis application the other 35 implants were perfectly osteointegrated with a healing rate equal to 94.6% of the fixtures. 36 months after the surgery all the fixtures were osteointegrated (35 of 37 implants with a percentage of 94.6% of success). We may conclude that the use of PRGF allowed to complete the sinus lift even in case of severe perforation of the sinus mucosa or its total removal thanks to its capability to stabilize the graft, its antibacterial and antifungal activity and its anabolic effect and favouring bone regeneration.
Although arthrocentesis is an accepted safe treatment modality for the management of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in symptomatic patients, the benefit of hyaluronic acid (HA) injections remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether intra-articular HA injections adjunctive to arthrocentesis can be more effective than other medications for the improvement of TMD associated symptoms. Additionally, the impact of HA injections on quality of life of TMD patients was assessed with SF-36® questionnaire in a cohort of patients. An electronic search of Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases was performed up to March 2020. The following search terms were used: "arthrocentesis", "hyaluronic acid", "intra-articular injections", "visco-supplementation", "temporomandibular disorders". Prospective and retrospective studies that reported the application of HA injections compared to other intra-articular drugs for the treatment of temporomandibular disorders were included. Systematic or narrative reviews and pre-clinical studies were excluded. Additionally, a retrospective clinical study was performed for evaluation of changes in quality of life before and after arthrocentesis with HA injections. In the systematic review, the initial search yielded 1327 articles. After screening of the titles, abstracts, and full texts, 29 studies were selected (26 randomized studies, 2 controlled clinical trials, 1 retrospective report). In the clinical study, 12 patients were included. Intra-articular injections of HA and other medications together with arthrocentesis seemed to be beneficial for improvement of functional symptoms of TMD and pain. The case series also supported the efficacy of HA injections showing an improvement of quality of life of these patients. However, from literature review, it was impossible to identify an optimum drug or a protocol for predictably improving the pain and/or functional symptoms of temporomandibular problems, due to different etiologies, diversity of treatment modalities and conflicting results. In conclusion, there is no consensus in the literature that HA injections shows better results in comparison with other treatment modalities. According to the results of the present clinical study, HA injections with/without arthrocentesis seems to be beneficial in terms of clinical symptoms and quality of life of the TMD patients.
The aim of this retrospective case series was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the patients that underwent implant surgery in all indication classes, with a follow-up of at least 9 years. 121 healthy patients in need for oral rehabilitation with dental implants were included in this study. 196 implants (160 conical, 73 cylindric design implants) were inserted. The implant survival rate was the primary outcome. Intra- and postoperative complications were additional criteria for success. The mean follow-up of the patients was 12.29 years (SD 1.39). Mean age of the study population was 51.0 years (SD 12.7). The mean bone loss around implants after at least 9 years of loading was measured as 2.0 mm (SD 0.73 mm). Intra-operative complications were seen in 5 patients. Post-operative complications included: 5 mucositis,1 dehiscence, 2 screw loosening, 1 infection at site and 1 nonintegrated implant. Two implants were lost in two patients. The overall implant survival rate was 99.1%. As a conclusion, oral rehabilitation with dental implant-supported prostheses can be accepted as a safe procedure with relevantly high survival rates of oral implants and successful aesthetic and functional outcomes.
Radiotherapy to head and neck has always been considered as a risk factor for rehabilitation with dental implants. Nevertheless, recent data suggest that overall, 5-year implant survival in irradiated patients can be greater than 90%. The purpose of this review was to compare the implant survival rates of irradiated and non-radiated head and neck cancer sites, and discuss the outcomes, through a systematic review approach of prospective and retrospective studies. Electronic searches were performed in the EMBASE, Cochrane, and PubMed/Medline databases up to 2019 Dec, to identify retrospective and prospective clinical studies addressing the subject. This systematic review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The primary variables collected from the studies were the site of tumor, age and sex of the patient, site of implant placement, radiation dosage, frequency and duration of radiotherapy, follow-up duration, implant survival and stability, hard and soft tissue changes after implant placement, any type of biological and mechanical complication, and oral health quality of life (QOL). Fifteen studies including 1097 patients and a total of 4637 implants placed in irradiated and non-irradiated sites, with a follow up duration varying from 6 to 120 months, were selected for the systematic review. The results of the quantitative synthesis suggested statistically significantly better survival rate of implants placed in nonradiated sites, as compared to irradiated sites (p<0.00001). However, the cumulative survival rates over a period of 7-10 years were reported to be comparable. Quality of life (QOL) after implant rehabilitation was not found to be significantly different between the compared groups. Due to the limited number of information, insufficient data was available to draw conclusion on peri-implant complication rate. No relationship was found between age, gender, and implant survival rates. Implant placement in irradiated sites is challenging and often warrants protocol modifications. Although statistically the survival rates at irradiated sites were lower in comparison to non-radiated sites, a strict inclusion criterion in patient selection, timing of implant placement after radiotherapy, radiation dosage and regular oral hygiene maintenance could minimize the chances of implant failure in irradiated patients.
The objective of this study was to establish the significance of probiotic usage, both as a preventive as well as a therapeutic strategy for the management of periodontal disease. It also substantiates the existing studies of single/combined bacterial strain for exhibiting variable ecological impact on oral bacteria. Data sources included literature searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus, Embase, CENTRAL and Web of science databases for placebo controlled randomized clinical trials of SRP with orally administered probiotics in any form as an adjunct. Data extraction was conducted and information from the included studies was tabulated according to the study designs, form of drug delivery, main outcomes, and clinical parameters. Data collected were based on the focused question outlined for the present systematic review. The reviewers cross-checked all extracted data. CAL and PD were assessed as the primary outcome to compare the effectiveness of adjunctive probiotic therapy in addition to SRP. Fourteen clinical studies were included and demonstrated efficacy in reducing periodontal probing depth (PPD) and gaining clinical attachment level (CAL), between probiotics and SRP/placebo. Adjunctive probiotic therapy in addition to SRP leads to decrease in probing depth and clinical attachment gain in chronic periodontitis patients. However, further high-quality randomized clinical trials with microbiological outcomes are required to fortify the conclusion.
In the last decades, the presence of peri-implant diseases (PD) has increased. One of the therapies currently used is probiotics with Lactobacillus reuteri (LR). The aim of this article is to determinate, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, the clinical effectiveness of LR in the treatment of PD. We searched the literature until January 2021, in the biomedical databases: Pubmed, Embase, Scielo, Science Direct, Scopus, SIGLE, LILACS, Google Scholar and Cochrane Central Registry of Clinical Trials. The selection criteria of the studies were: randomized controlled clinical trials, without language and time restriction, reporting the clinical effects (depth to probing, plaque index and bleeding index) of the LR in the PD treatment. The risk of study bias was analyzed through the Cochrane tool for randomized studies using Review Manager software. The search strategy resulted in 6 articles of which four investigated peri-implantitis and three peri-implant mucositis. All studies reported that there was a difference in the depth of the probing in the treatment of PD, in favor of the group using LR, though not always achieving significance. The use of LR can be clinically effective in terms of pocket depth reduction in the treatment of PD.
Grape seed extract (GSE), a naturally producing polyphenolic compound, is found to be a potent hostmodulatory agent and considered for management of periodontal disease. Its anti-bacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory property may aid in achieving periodontal health. To assess the clinical efficacy of GSE in adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in healing of periodontal pockets. The present study was a longitudinal, parallel design, randomized clinical trial. Seventy-two patients (mean age 39.2±8.6 years) with periodontal pockets were randomly divided into two groups; Test group received intra-pocket delivery of GSE with SRP and Control group received SRP alone. The clinical parameters like Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), Probing Depth (PD) and Relative Attachment Level (RAL) were recorded at baseline and 3 months. 64 patients completed the study. Test group at the end of 3 months had statistically significant reduced PD (p=0.002) and RAL (p=0.01). No significant difference was observed for PI and GI at the end of 3 months. Intra-pocket application of GSE with SRP could be beneficial in management of periodontal pockets.
Bibliometric Analysis researches and analyses the quantitative data derived from scientific publications through the empirical evidence of scientific activity generated by collaborating authors through the final product of their research: the scientific article. In scientific society, the concept of impact factor is probably the most widely used in bibliometric construction. To assess the scientometrics of three high-impact factor periodontal journals and identify the contribution of India in these most productive journals over three years (Jan 2018 - Dec 2020) and to know the most influential topics researched. A retrospective observational study was conducted for the Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontology, and Journal of Periodontal Research. All issues of 2018, 2019, and 2020 were electronically and hand searched for the following parameters: Number of papers, affiliated organizations, and countries, topics reported, and contribution of Indian authors. The data were organized and analyzed with descriptive statistics using SPSS software (version 21.0). In total 469 articles were published by Journal of Periodontology, followed by 454 articles in Journal of Clinical Periodontology and 287 articles in Journal of Periodontal Research. In all the three journals, China had the maximum contributions, succeeded by USA. India has published maximum number of articles in the Journal of Periodontal Research. When analysed, although less as compared to the western counterparts, an increasing trend in the publications is seen in case of India.
The objective of the research was to evaluate the location, size, variability, and morphologic features of mental foramen (MF) and the inferior alveolar nerve canal (IAN) on cone-beam CT. We evaluated the morphologic findings of mental foramen (MF) and inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) canal of 88 mandibular hemiarches of 65 Caucasian subjects (35 males, 30 females; age range 25-75 years) using cone beam CT. The most common horizontal position of MF was type 3 (53.4%), followed by type 4 (39.8%), type 1 (2.3%), type 2 (2.3%), and type 5 (2.3%). Regarding the vertical position, in 71.6% of cases (63/88) we found type 3 position, followed by type 2 (22.7%) and type 1 (5.7%). MF presented as oval in 51.1% and round in 42%, with double oval and triple foramens having been observed in 5.7% and 1.1% respectively. In 36.9% of cases, we found an anterior loop of the IAN. The mean depth of MF was 6.12±1.65mm; width and height were 3.7±0.83mm and 3.14±0.78mm. Width and height of the IAN distal to MF were 2.27±0.53mm and 2.74±0.51mm, while those of the incisive nerve canal mesial to MF were 1.37±0.44mm and 1.54±0.58mm, respectively. An increase in the width of MF was correlated to oval shape (r=0.45; P < 0.01), and there was a low but significant correlation (r=0.23; P < 0.05) between the round shape of MF and the size of the IAN. MF shape appears to be correlated to MF width and size of the IAN. The individual anatomical variability of this structure is a factor that must be considered when dealing with mandibular surgery.
The aim of this retrospective case series was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the patients that underwent implant surgery with a modification of the sinus lift summers protocol. Forty healthy patients in need for oral rehabilitation with dental implants were included in this study. Inclusion criterion was the need for extraction of one compromised tooth due to persistent abscess/ periodontitis/cyst in the atrophic posterior maxilla region. The treatment consisted of two stage surgery for all patients. In the first stage, after tooth extraction, the sockets were preserved with allogenic bone graft and equine collagen membrane. After 4-5 months, 40 implants with a sandblasted surface, were inserted with osseodensification technique and a modification of the Summers sinus lift protocol for fracturing the sinus floor. The implant survival rate was the primary outcome. Intra- and postoperative complications were additional criteria for success. The mean follow-up from implant surgery was 28.0±7.3 (standard deviation) months (range 17.8-43.4 months). One implant was lost before the delivery of the prosthesis. The overall implant survival rate was 97.5%. The overall mean peri-implant marginal bone level change after 6 and 12 months of function was, respectively, 0.26±0.24 mm (95% CI: 0.19, 0.34 mm) and 0.71±0.36 mm (95% CI: 0.60, 0.82 mm). Marginal bone loss was statistically significant at both time frames respect to implant placement, and also the difference between 6 and 12 months was significant (p<0.001 in both cases). No biological nor mechanical complications were recorded throughout the observation period. As a conclusion, the technique presented in this cohort study can be an effective and safe alternative to standard maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedures and immediate implant insertion protocol, especially in cases of periodontitis and infected sites, which can represent a high risk for implant failure in patients with atrophic posterior maxilla.
Numerous studies have been published aiming to investigate the relationship between sagittal craniofacial pattern and the dimensions of upper airway, but with controversial results. The aim of the study is to verify if an association exists between a specific sagittal cranio-facial pattern and smaller dimensions of upper airway, leading so to a possible risk indicator for OSAS development. Ninety-nine cone-beam computed tomographies (CBCT) were selected from adult patients (48 males, 51 females, age range 18- 65 years). Patients were divided into 3 groups, with 33 patients each, according to their skeletal class (I: 1<ANB<3; II: ANB>3; III: ANB<1). The CBCT data were imported into Simplant O&O software as Dicom files. Borders for the oropharynx and for the hypopharynx of which the volumes were calculated, and the total length (L) were defined. Finally, the average cross-sectional area (a-CSA) was defined as the ratio between total volume and total length for each patient. All data were statistically analyzed using GraphPad Software. A significant difference was found between groups for oropharynx, hypopharynx, and total volume, with Class II having smaller airway dimensions. In a gender-based comparison, there was a statistically significant difference between female and male patients of the same group, and between the same gender in different groups. Regarding the total length and the a-CSA, there was a statistically significant difference between the groups. These results indicate that class II and female patients have smaller dimensions of upper airway leading to a possible risk indicator for OSAS development.
The route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been understood thanks to the knowledge of previously identified human coronaviruses. According to these studies, the transmission of the virus occurs mainly between humans at close range, through respiratory droplets produced during conversation or coughing, as well as through direct contact of the hands then placed on the mucous membranes or mouth. From the final analysis of studies carried out on protective systems, the validity of plexiglass as a material to be used for the construction of protective devices could be affirmed. The plexiglass, in fact, would seem able to isolate the diffusion of aerosol particles dispersed by infected subjects and in different environments.
Pain, bad taste, and impaired daily activity after implant therapy are common sequelae. Concentrated growth factors (CGF) are a platelet concentrate with a favourable effect on wound healing, but there is still no evidence regarding its potential benefits for reducing postoperative pain and symptoms. Therefore, aim of this prospective comparative study was to determine the effect of CGF on quality of life (QoL) of patients after implant therapy. Fifty-two consecutive patients with one missing mandibular molar were included in the study and alternatively assigned to two groups. Control group received standard implant treatment, and test group received CGF associated with implants. Standard periapical radiographs were taken before and after procedure. Post-operative care consisted of 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution twice daily for 10 days. A QoL questionnaire (OHIP-14) for bad taste, pain and limitation in daily activities was filled and returned one week post-operatively. Daily pain was also assessed through Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) on a 1-100 scale. Parametric test (chi-square) was performed to compare the results of the questionnaire between the two groups using STATA statistical software. All patients correctly filled and returned the questionnaire. Significantly higher proportions of patients of test group reported no bad taste, pain, and limited activity, (24/26, 13/26, and 25/26, respectively) respect to control. Postoperative pain with VAS score was significantly lower in the test group on day 1, 2, and 3 as compared to control. CGF positively influenced QoL when associated with implant rehabilitation of mandibular molars, minimizing post-operative discomfort.
Tooth extraction produces alveolar bone resorption and soft tissue remodelling, so identification of adequate technique for alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction is fundamental for all specific cases. Among the several biomaterials, CGF can represent an ideal alternative considering its and its mechanical and biological properties. In this preliminary study we compared the effectiveness of the use of two different parts of CGF (WP-White Part and BC-Buffy Coat) versus natural healing (CTR) by a split-mouth randomized clinical design. Four healthy patients who needed extraction of three teeth were selected. Post-extractive alveolar sockets were filled randomly with CGF-WP, CGF-BC or nothing for CTR. After 60 days, before implant placement, a biopsy for each alveola was obtained for quantitative histomorphometric analysis. The data obtained showed that the use of CGF-WP could achieve good regenerative results, supporting the use of this part for the preservation of the post-extractive alveolar socket.
Although oral diseases are mostly preventable, they remain a global public health problem. Thus, there is a need for trained personnel to actively intervene in promoting oral health, to prevent and timeously detect oral diseases, and, in turn, to provide comprehensive quality healthcare. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the knowledge, practices and perceptions regarding oral health preventive measures amongst undergraduate dental students. This cross-sectional study was conducted between the period October 2017 and January 2018. The subjects included were undergraduate students of the dental science program at the School of Dentistry, in Leon Guanajuato, Mexico. A validated questionnaire was used to identify knowledge of preventive dentistry and the frequency of oral health preventive actions in the dental school clinics. Besides, perception towards prevention in dentistry was assessed. A total of N=232 undergraduate students participated of whom 65.9% (N=153) were women. More than half of the students 59.5%, (N=138) rated their knowledge on the prevention of oral diseases as good, followed by 32.8% (N=75) of students who rated it as regular. 49% (N=97) of the students performed frequently preventive treatments in their daily clinical practice. 90% (N=217) think that the main reason of low practice of prevention in dentistry is the lack of commitment of the dentist. 72.8% (N=169) mention that there should be professionals dedicated exclusively to preventive dentistry. Students of second grade demonstrated better prevention knowledge and tended to engage more frequently in preventive activities (p<0.05). In conclusion, our study found that, second-year students perform preventive practices more frequently and these practices decrease as their studies progress. It should be sought to create positive attitudes towards prevention not only in the year in preventive dentistry, but also throughout the entire career. This enables students to become trained professionals that can deliver preventive services to their patients.
Gustatory sensitivity has important biological functions and taste disorders are generally difficult to diagnose and treat. The aim of this study was to investigate taste sensitivity on a sample of adult healthy patients through the validation and administration of a gustatory test, to describe a possible baseline of reference. A gustatory test was performed following a standardized protocol, using primary flavors solutions at 4 known increasing concentrations for a total of 16 sapid solutions. Taste sensitivity was investigated considering (a) the threshold of the flavor identification and (b) the intensity of stimulus perception. Seventy-one healthy patients were included in the study. Reliability measures were evaluated, supporting the validity of the test itself. Sweet, bitter, and salty flavors could be identified within the first concentration, sour flavor was detected within the second concentration in the majority of cases (p<0.05). Sour flavor showed the lowest value of perceived intensity for the less concentrated solution, sweet flavor showed the highest value. Regarding the most concentrated solution, bitter flavor showed the highest intensity value, while sour remained the lowest one. Both gender-based and age-based differences regarding threshold and intensity of perception were not statistically significant. However mean threshold averagely increased along with age. Within its limitations, this study validates a useful, easy-to-use tool for assessing taste function and it provides a possible baseline for perception of primary flavors in a healthy adult population, which can be used as a reference for future studies considering specific cohorts of patients.
Xanthelasma palpebrarum is a subcutaneous lesion of the lid and cause a cosmetical issue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the atmospheric plasma treatment for the treatment of xanthelasma with an 11-year follow up. Seventy-two patients with bilateral xanthelasma and 26 patients with unilateral xanthelasma by atmospheric plasma technique known also as voltaic arc dermabrasion (VAD, Europe Medical s.r.l. Montesilvano (PE), Italy). Photographs were obtained at the baseline and after the procedure and analyzed by an independent observer. The evaluation of the results was made 2 months after this single treatment with 11 years of follow up. The subjects average age was 48.5 years (range 41-63 years). All subjects were elected for a single session for the lesion removal. The erosion is epithelialized from the lesion margins and the dermal basal cells. After 2 months from the treatment, the result was scored as 4 (clearing of lesions > 75%, complete resolution) in 66 patients for a total of 104 lesions treated; scored as 3 in 24 patients for a total of 48 lesions, and as 2 in nine patients for a total of 18 lesions. No subjects scored 0 or 1. A total of 8 lesions showed mild erythema in the treated areas for 1 month. Numerous approaches were proposed for xanthelasma exeresis such as a surgical treatment especially in case of excessively large lesions or lesions involving the medial canthus that could produce a more limited skin laxity rapidly induces a risk of ectropion. In conclusion, the effectiveness of the present investigation suggest that the atmospheric plasma is a useful therapeutic option for the treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum.
The aging process causes skin modification and wrinkle formation with an alteration of the face harmony and imperfections. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate a cross-linked hyaluronic acid enriched with glycine and proline for zygomatic malar region infiltrations. A total of twenty healthy female patients were treated for zygomatic hypotonia. The level of patients and surgeon satisfaction was evaluated by global aesthetic improvement scale (GAIS) at baseline, immediately after the procedure and at 6 months from the treatment. The healing phase was uneventful, and no complications were reported in the perioperative and follow-up periods. No significant differences were reported between patients and surgeon GAIS score (p<0.05). A significant difference of GAIS score was reported immediately after the procedure and at 6 months if compared to the baseline (p<0.05). The cross-linked hyaluronic acid enriched with glycine and proline is a useful biomaterial for zygomatic- malar augmentation with no significant local complications and a high stability and satisfaction level of the procedure.
Graphene-doping procedure represents a useful procedure to improve the mechanical, physical and biological response of several PMMA-derived polymers and biomaterials for dental applications. The aim of the study was to evaluate measure water sorption, water solubility and tolerance trough the rabbit pyrogen testing pyrogen detection of Graphene doped Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) compared with PMMA as potential materials for dental implant device. A total of 8 aged and unaged samples Graphene doped PMMA and PMMA were tested for water sorption and water solubility of the specimens. The experimental condition was evaluated according to the ISO 20795-1:2013 protocol. The biopolymer tolerance was evaluated in vivo on animals through the pyrogen detection test, acute intracutaneous and systemic irritation test. After wet conditioning both of Graphene doped PMMA and PMMA reported an increase of the weight. All the experimental samples showed a drastic low level of water sorption and solubility. Graphene doped PMMA unaged specimens showed a stability of physical and optical feature after the treatment. The Graphene doped PMMA has not shown pyrogens, an intradermal and systemic irritant effect on animals. The Graphene-doped PMMA satisfy the standard requirements and provide a physical and optical stability of the compound after the treatment. Further in vivo findings are required for future clinical application of the compound.
After oral surgery, bacterial adhesion to suture can cause surgical site infections and delay wound healing. Microbial adherence to the suture is influenced by its physical configuration and chemical structure. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the bacterial adhesion to two suture materials used in oral surgery: silk and monofilament expanded polytetrafluoethilene (e-PTFE). After sinus lift surgery, 15 flaps were sutured with silk (nonabsorbable, organic, braided, 4.0) and 15 were sutured with e-PTFE (nonabsorbable, synthetic, monofilament, 4.0). Seven days after surgery, bacterial adherence, in terms of percentage of the surface covered, was evaluated for each suture material by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Onto silk suture, plaque consisted of a few cocci and a higher proportion of rods and filamentous-shaped bacteria, with some mineralized plaque. Onto e-PTFE speciments, only small colonies of a few cocci or no bacteria were observed, with empty spaces between the colonies and no plaque mineralization. The surface covered by bacteria on e-PTFE specimens was significantly lower than that of silk sutures. (22.1% ±4.96% vs 54.3% ± 7.9%; P =0.0001). The results of the present study suggest that multifilament structure of silk favours a greater bacterial adherence, proliferation, and persistence, so monofilament and e- PTFE suture should be preferred in oral surgery.
Cement-retained restorations on implants ensures better passive fit and aesthetics, simplicity of fabrication and a homogenous load distribution during function, compared to screw-retained restorations, but it is associated to biological complications following the difficulty to remove cement excess. In fact, residual cement is a predisposing factor to peri-implant tissue inflammation and periimplantitis, because promotes plaque retention of bacteria, due to rough surface. This is especially true since radiographs should not reveal the cement excess and cements commonly used for the cementation of implantsupported prostheses have poor radiodensity. This report documents a case of clinical and radiographic findings of peri-implant disease associated with excess cement extrusion. Two months after cement removal, resolution of inflammation occurred. A good method of cementation, an accessible margin of restoration and the use of ZnOE cement instead of methacrylate cement, should help to prevent cementrelated peri-implant disease.
Facial aging involves all facial structures located at different levels: bones soft tissues and skin with a reduction of the extracellular matrix. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the injectable solution antiaging complex composed by non-reticulated hyaluronic acid (HA) and amino acids vitamins and antioxidants conveyed with mesotherapy technique in subjects with different expressions of aging. 114 patients with different expressions of aging were enrolled in this study with mean age (49±6). HA and amino acids vitamins and antioxidants complex solution Neofound (Love Cosmedical, Castagneto, Italy) was injected on the dermal plane or superficial subdermal plane. Among the various imperfections, fine roughness surface irregularities skin firmness brightness/discoloration cutaneous hydration were those with the greatest response to therapy. The clinical data showed that the medical device Neofound is effective and safe to treat various skin signs of chrono and photoaging thanks to its ability to protect tissues from oxidative stress and hydrate the skin.
White spot lesions (WSL) are demineralizations of the enamel found on the tooth surfaces. WSL are considered incipient non-cavitated caries caused by bacterial plaque activity. Subjects with malocclusion such as dental crowding and fixed orthodontic appliances have a greater number of retention sites and consequently difficulty in cleaning and greater predisposition to caries. In fact, WSL are a frequent side effect of orthodontic fixed treatments. The prevention and resolution of this problem is the goal of any orthodontist because untreated WSL can lead to the formation of deeper dental caries and restorative treatment with consequent compromise of patient satisfaction with the aesthetic result obtained at the end of the orthodontic treatment. This review is intended not only for orthodontists but also for general and pediatric dentists who want to learn how to correctly prevent, and treat this unsightly problem. On the market there are many products sold to achieve this goal, some of them can be managed independently by the patient at home, others require the intervention of the dentist. The purpose of this literature review is to understand how these substances work, to identify with which of the currently most widespread the best results have been obtained and then to provide useful information to guide the clinician in choosing the most suitable one for the patient.
The research is aiming to obtain at room temperature a new ceramic material containing partially stabilized zirconia with different oxides after sintering used for dental and other technological purposes. Our research proposes a new method based on the use of stabilized zirconia with other oxides to obtain optimized dental material with a lower cost price and / or improved properties to allow wider use of these products to an increased number of patients in dental offices. X-ray diffraction, SEM analysis. FTIR spectroscopy, UVVis and density measurements were accomplished for the three ceramic systems. The correlation between the microstructure and the spectroscopic properties of zirconium stabilized by FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis helps understanding the mechanisms associated with the formation of high (tetragonal and / or cubic) temperature zirconia. Along with the simple, less costly preparation method and high purity of the ceramic products our study offers a highly desirable product for technological applications.
The diabetes and osteoporotic metabolic diseases are characterized by a wide prevalence of the population worldwide and correlated to alteration of the bone tissues. Several cofactors could influence the clinical course and the biochemistry of the pathologies such as human microbiome, nutrition characteristics, gut microbiota activity and interactions with vitamin K and D across IGF/GH and TP53 signaling pathways and the glucose/energy as mechanism for bone tissue health. Moreover, also the calories and sugar consumption seem to be correlated to an increased inflammatory state with several consequences for hematopoiesis and host tissues response. The aim of the present literature review was to highlight the role of osteoporotic diseases and diabetes type 2 link for the bone metabolism. The literature cases showed that a correlation between bone-gut-kidney-heart-CNS-Immunity crosstalk seems to be linked with bone metabolism and health regulation. Moreover, also the aging process could represent a valuable co-factor for the sustaining of the metabolic disorders upon a multi-systemic level.
Anterior open bite is one of the most complex malocclusions to manage. The interaction of skeletal, dental, and soft tissue effects can contribute to develop an anterior open bite. The skeletal open bite requires a more complex approach of treatment to reach function, aesthetics, and stability. The approaches vary depending on the causative factors and the age of patients. Treatment approaches for open bite patients differ when dealing with adults and growing patients. The aim of this descriptive review was to summarize the main existing treatment strategies for anterior open bite, from the noninvasive behavioural shaping to the orthodontic intrusion with skeletal anchorage.
Resorption of alveolar ridge after tooth extraction often compromises dental implant placement and esthetic. Alveolar ridge preservation is a common procedure performed in order to preserve the pontic site for a prosthetically ideal position. This procedure has already become an indisputable need. Tooth matrix as bone substituted material poses osteoconduction and osteoinduction properties and as autologous graft, this material is free of antigenic reaction. This biomaterial allows the threedimensional reconstruction of the bone, is easy to prepare and has a low cost. The aim of this review is to summarize and put in evidence the properties of tooth as bone substitute and its use in alveolar ridge preservation. Keyword: autologous tooth, autologous graft, bone regeneration, bone substitute, alveolar ridge preservation, alveolar ridge augmentation, socket preservation.
The occlusal trauma has been defined as an injury to the periodontium resulting from occlusal forces that exceeds the reparative capacity of the attachment apparatus. Currently, the effects of occlusal trauma on tooth support tissues, the onset and the progression of periodontal disease are still debated. In fact, researchers started evaluating the possible effects of occlusal discrepancies on incidence, progression, and treatment outcomes of periodontitis, but all the results underlined the more significant role played by microbiological flora. The results of this study show that after 60 days of treating the occlusal trauma, a significant reduction was achieved in the periodontal bacterial flora.
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the essential physiological functions of the skin microbiota in human health and diseases. The main characteristics of the normal microbiota in the different anatomical sites have been reported in relation to the main factors, such as the effect of age, on its composition and stability for the eubiosis condition. Moreover, the present overview analyzed the functions and composition and the correct functionality of the skin microbiota in the light of current knowledge. According to several evidence is important preserving the eubiosis of the commensal microbes of the microecosystem (symbiotic and pathogenic), and probiotics are able to counteract the conditions of dysbiosis. Also, it has been shown that there is a crosstalk between gut and skin microbiota that affects human health and is still being studied, and its relationship to the current pandemic SARS-CoV-2.
The aim of this study was to compare the size and shape of bone fragments produced by the ultrasonic and drilling procedures in implant site preparation. Six pieces of rib selected as experimental animal model of 15 cm in length and at least 13 mm of thickness were used. The samples were treated and divided into 2 groups as follows: group A (GA) ultrasonic implant site preparation technique; group B (GB) traditional surgical drill technique. Ultrasonic implant site preparation (GA) was carried out using a sequence of progressive diameter (1.00 mm, 2.00 mm and 3.00 mm) conical inserts at a depth of 10 mm. Standard drill implant site procedure (GB) was carried out with a sequence of 1.00 mm, 2.00 mm, and 3.00 mm cylindrical twist drills, for preparing an implant site at a depth of 10 mm. From each group bone fragments (0.1 gr) were collected from both cortical and cancellous bone preparation and their dimensions were evaluated by optic microscope analysis. The bone debris dimensions procured by cortical bone of Group A and Group B were, respectively, 0.14×0.16 mm (±0.13) and 1.15 ×0.92 mm (±0.68). The bone debris dimensions procured by cancellous bone of Group A and Group B were, respectively, 0.15×0.10 mm (±0.10) and 1.98×1.27 mm (±0.94). Ultrasonic implant site preparation technique was able to micronize bone and to remove all debris with cooling system. Surgical drills tend to fracture bone, creating a weaker structure and fragments of larger size, which remain in considerable quantity over bone walls during site preparation. Within the limits of the present study, the ultrasonic implant preparation was able to produce reduced bone sediments and a clear bed implant favoring osseointegration.
Geographic tongue (GT), a form of inverse psoriasis, is frequently linked to plaque psoriasis. The objective of the study is to evaluate IL-17 blocker (secukinumab) effect on GT severity. This reallife, multicenter, retrospective observational pilot study evaluated patients with plaque psoriasis and concomitant GT that started in label treatment with secukinumab. Patients were evaluated twice (T0=baseline and T1=after 16 weeks) by a dentist and a dermatologist collecting data on cutaneous Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and oral statuses using Hume's classification of the Geographic Tongue Severity Index (GTASI). Twenty-nine psoriatic patients with GT treated with secukinumab were enrolled for the study. Seventeen patients display type I GT, 6 type II and 6 type III with an overall GTASI of 25.52±9.57 at the baseline (T0). No correlation was found between delta GTASI and delta PASI (r=-0.27, p=0.1551). GTASI decrement from T0 to T1 was statistically significant ([95%CI -26.64 to -19.56], t=-13.36, p<0.0001). Secukinumab may enter in GT therapeutic armamentarium as the first biologic IL-17 blocker in patients with concomitant moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.
Geographic tongue (GT) represents a localized type of psoriasis inversa and its burden of dermatological and oral comorbidities frequently conditions its severity and diagnosis. Currently, no epidemiological studies have evaluated GT muco-cutaneous comorbidities. We aimed to study oral and dermatological comorbidities in a large sample of GT patients. In this multicenter, cross-sectional study, involving 4 primary referral centers in Italy, we evaluated adult GT patients, who were assessed by board certified dermatologists and dentists for 5 months and collected demographics and medical history. GT was evaluated using Hume's classification together with Geographic tongue severity index (GTASI) to score its severity. The prevalence of oral and dermatological comorbidities was recorded. In the sample we enrolled 137 GT patients (M/F= 5:1) with a mean age of 48,2 ± 14,7 yoa and 33.6% had GT family history. The clinical evaluation found 96 (70.1%) GT type I, 7 (5.1%) type II, 13 (9.5%) type IIIa, 19 (13.9%) type IIIb, 2 (1.5%) type IV, following Hume's classification. The mean GTASI score was 23,7 ± 14,2 and the vast majority displayed a severe form of GT. Eighty-nine patients had oral comorbidities (burning mouth syndrome, caries, parulid and lichen planus) and 80 had dermatological concurrent conditions (plaque psoriasis, inverse psoriasis and atopic dermatitis). In GT patients, both dermatological and dental evaluation should be mandatory to identify previously undiagnosed mucocutaneous comorbidities.
The aim of this case report was to present the management of the aesthetic consequences of the treatment for granuloma removal in the zygomatic region, with concentrated growth factors (CGF) activated by medical ozone. A 54-year-old woman presented with bilateral lesion in the zygomatic region, caused by treatment with hyaluronidase and laser for removal of a granuloma, developed after infiltration with hyaluronate. The lesion was treated by local application of platelet-rich plasma obtained with CGF centrifuge, and containing CD34+ cells, mixed and activated by ozone in a 1:1 proportion, at a concentration of 40 mg/ml for 30 sec, in a syringe. Five consecutive bilateral infiltrations were made at 3-week intervals. Lesion volume was measured, and patient's quality of life was assessed with PGWBI (Psychological General Well Being Index) questionnaire. After the third infiltration of CGF-ozone, a consistent reduction of the lesion was observed, until disappearance at the end of the treatment. The result was maintained after 4-year follow-up. Considerable improvement of patient's well-being was reported. This case report showed that CGF-ozone combined therapy may promote dermal regeneration, achieving excellent facial esthetics outcomes. This result needs to be confirmed by further studies with a larger sample size.
HPVs are a large and varied group of viruses capable of infecting both animals and humans. They have evolved together with their respective hosts and are isolable in different and numerous species of birds, reptiles, marsupials and mammals. The present study aims to analyze and compare the epidemiological aspects of 251 HPV-associated benign lesions treated with three different surgical approaches. Between January 2004 and December 2019, 251 HPV-associated benign lesions (papillomas and / or condylomas) were treated at the Center of Medicina e Patologia Orale Laser Assistita of the University of Parma. After loco-regional anesthesia, the excisional biopsy was performed with A): 15C scalpel blade; B): molecular quantum resonance scalpel (RQM); C): Nd: YAG laser (1064 mn, 3.5W, 70Hz). The epidemiological analysis considered: gender, age, site of the lesion, surgical technique and recurrence. Our study did not show substantial differences in gender prevalence and the mean age of 50 years (minimum 8 years, maximum 85 years). Our study showed that HPV-associated lesions are localized in almost half of patients (47.9%) on the tongue or hard palate, less frequently on the cheeks (16.3%) and on the upper or lower lip (14,4) and in less than 10% of patients in the soft palate. Our study showed a low relapse rate (3%) for all three therapeutic approaches used, meaning that the cold blade, RQM scalpel and Nd: YAG laser can be successfully used to treat lesions associated with HPV, the laser approach has proved to be slightly more effective: probably thanks to the radicalization obtained through carbonization of the biopsy surrounding tissues. Since a small group of these viruses are the responsible agent of several types of human cancers (including squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity), early screening and treatment of HPV-associated lesions is essential to prevent the development of oncological diseases.
Surgical techniques of soft and hard oral tissues highly benefited from new technologies such as the Quantic Molecular Resonance (QMR) lancet, the Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and the Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser. Increasingly, these technologies replace scalpel, conventional electrosurgery and traditional rotary surgery instruments due to their proven advantages. Features such as reduction of the surgical time, more efficient bleeding control resulting in higher intra-operative visibility and improvement of postoperative course with better Quality of Life score (QoL) are highlighted in numerous studies published in the literature. The thermal rise of tissues during surgical incision, performed with other instruments rather than traditional cold blade scalpels, is not to be ignored by the operator and it must take into consideration first when choosing the surgical instrument and then throughout all the surgical act. Auto-fluorescence (AF) is a property possessed by every cell that exposed to a specific wavelength can absorbance or reflect with peculiar characteristics and its direct examination has been proposed as a non-invasive visual tool for investigation of suspicious changes in oral mucosa. At the limit of our knowledge, few studies have been published in the literature regarding tissue's temperature variations and the interest in Infra-Red temperature detection has been shown in various medicine fields and none of published studies investigated the possible correlation between temperature raise and AF variations. This ex vivo study aims to analyse and compare through the use of a thermal imaging camera and simultaneous detection of AF, the possible correlation between temperature increase and auto-fluorescence.
Treatments with removable appliances are widely used in Europe to correct dento-skeletal dysgnatia in the growth phase that is a period of poor cooperation of the patients. Adherence to the wear-time prescription is often not achieved and it represent the main argument against the use of removable devices. Suspected non-compliant behavior with the wear time prescription is often the subject of medico-legal disputes, which can deteriorate doctor-patient relationship. The use of microchips allows to document objectively and clarify the patient's behavior. To conduct a systematic review of the orthodontic literature to identify the factors associated with compliance in orthodontic treatment. We conduct a systematic review that aimed to identity the factors associate with compliance in orthodontic treatment. The main purpose was to assess the objective levels of time of use of the removable appliances and the self-reported levels. A literature search was conducted by the electronic databases PubMed and Cochrane Library. The following search terms were used: compliance functional removable orthodontic appliance. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, case series, qualitative and mixed-methods studies objectively assessing compliance levels were included in the study. A total of 94 articles were identified by PubMed and 14 articles by Cochrane. The papers selected were included for the qualitative analysis and categorized according to the subjects age, the clinical appliance, compliance factors, wear time and monitoring. Removable appliances are an important part of orthodontic treatment, used in growth phase of the patient. Collaboration with removable functional devices determines success / failure in treatment.