The aim of this study is to develop a decision-making path for the management of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) associated with or without dentin hypersensitivity (DH) This will allow to limit or delay invasive approaches identifying the causes that produced them. The need for this review is because there are no clear guidelines in the current literature for the treatment of NCCLs. Usually, the selection of the best therapy option is postponed to clinical judgment which can be influenced by a patient's demands (aesthetic, symptomatologic reasons or worsening of pre-existing NCCL). To establish a therapeutic plan the young dentist should be able to distinguish the NCCLs that need to be monitored over time from those in need of early treatment. Indeed, the experience of the dentist and the compliance of the patient play a decisive role for the success of the therapy.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to exert immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory actions. Thanks to these properties, MSCs may be a promising alternative approach for the treatment of inflammatory disease. Important cytokines involved in inflammation are those included in the IL-1 family. Interleukin-37 (IL-37) is one of the member able to suppress both innate and adaptive immunity. Recently, it was found that MSCs and their derivatives can modulate IL-37, and MSCs expressing IL-37 seem to have an enhanced therapeutic efficacy.
Viral dsRNA acts as the paramount pathogen-associated molecular pattern on infection and orchestrates inflammation or immune cascades of the host's tissues. The comparative effects or mechanisms of inflammation or immunity in different organs on viral infections are critical in immunology or virology. To outline the organ-based molecular mechanisms of inflammation or immunity on viral infection, we challenged mice with the viral mimic poly(I:C) and quantified inflammatory cytokines Il-1b and TNF-α in the brain and lung tissues. As cytokines showed differential expression, transcriptome screenings of mouse lung and brain tissues were analyzed. We identified 629 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in lung and 137 DEGs in brain tissues with a few overlapping genes. Most of those DEGs were interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) that are involved in the anti-viral defense mechanisms. The expression patterns of viral dsRNA stimulated genes, and consequently, their association with different molecular mechanisms of inflammation and immunity were specific to the organs. The effects of viral mimic were higher in the lung than in the brain in terms of the number of DEGs and ISGs. Interestingly ribosomal protein L29 (Rpl29), a cell surface heparin-binding protein, was upregulated in the brain and downregulated in the lung. The contrasting expression of Rpl29 gene might be responsible for tissue-specific inflammatory responses in lung and brain tissue on virus infection. In addition, the upregulation of Tlr13, a dsRNA and bacterial 23s rRNA receptor, in the poly(I:C)-stimulated mouse lungs suggests its important role in lung inflammatory responses. It is likely that the combined effects of these genes orchestrate the organ-specific inflammatory or immune responses. Our findings would be beneficial to explore new insights in inflammation and immunity against many critical viral diseases.
Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth leading cause of gynecological malignancies worldwide. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-mediated chemotherapy is the adjuvant treatment for patients with GC following surgical resection. Many studies have indicated the cancer-type specific roles of forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) and keratin 7 (KRT7) in human malignancies. However, the potential mechanism underlying the involvement of FOXA1 and KRT7 in the pathogenesis and chemoresistance of GC are still not entirely clear. In our study, gain- and loss-of-function experiments proved that FOXA1 promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion in AGS and SGC-7901 cells. Consequently, KRT7 was identified to be transcriptional activated by FOXA1 using Dual luciferase reporter assay. Our results also indicated that FOXA1 exerted its functions in enhancing viability and invasion of AGS and SGC-7901 cells through activating KRT7. Finally, interference of FOXA1 or KRT7 increased the chemosensitivity of AGS and SGC-7901 cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) treatment by suppressing cell proliferation. In conclusion, these data indicate that FOXA1 promoted proliferation, migration, invasion, and decreased chemosensitivity of GC cells to 5-Fu treatment through transcriptional activator KRT7. The present study provides a novel therapeutic strategy for the enhancement of efficacy in GC treatment and provides important insights into the molecular mechanism underlying 5-FU-mediated chemoresistance.
The development of electronic technology has attracted attention on the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and electromagnetic pulse (EMP). It remains controversial whether EMP irradiation is neurotoxic or beneficial for recovery from injuryies such as cerebral ischemia. Microglia is innate immune cells in the brain, exhibiting either neurotoxicity or neuroprotection effect during various central nervous system diseases, depending on their activation into a classical (M1) or alternative (M2) phenotype, respectively. The Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway is important for microglia activation. In this study, we investigated the effect of EMP on neuronal apoptosis and microglia polarization in vivo and in vitro, using an EMP of 400 kV/m and 1 hertz for 200 pulses. Short EMP irradiation (≤24 h) resulted in microglial conversion from the resting to the M1-type state, activation of the TLR4/MyD88/NFκB pathway, higher levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as neuronal apoptosis induction. In contrast, long EMP irradiation (3 days) resulted in microglial activation into the M2-type, decreased apoptosis and inflammatory mediator production, and increased levels of the neuroprotective effectors IL-10, transforming growth factor beta, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. EMP induces both neuronal damage and neuronal recovery by influencing the switch of M1/M2 polarization and the TLR4/MyD88/NFκB pathway.
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a disease with high incidence and no effective therapeutic treatments. miR- 145-5p has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in lung injury tissues, suggesting a potential role in the progression and development of ALI. To validate this hypothesis and explore the underlying mechanism, a mouse model of ALI was established using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Hematoxylin and eosin (Hand E) staining verified the successful establishment of mouse model with ALI. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL- 6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were detected by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry. Mouse type II alveolar epithelial cells (AT II) were isolated and treated with LPS. miR-145-5p was significantly down-regulated both in mice with acute lung injury and LPS-induced AT II cells. Dual luciferase assays confirmed miR-145-5p could target and regulate Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4). Further analysis showed that miR-145-5p overexpression decreased the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-induced AT II cells. miR-145-5p overexpression also blocked the LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in AT II cells. Finally, in ALI mouse model, miR-145-5p overexpression alleviated lung tissue injury, decreased the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and reduced MPO activity. In conclusion, miR-145-5p participated in the progression and development of ALI by decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, inhibiting NF-κB pathway and suppressing ROS accumulation, shedding light on miR-145-5p as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ALI.
This study used Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with stroke-prone renovascular hypertension (RHRSP) to establish an animal model of hypertensive white matter lesions (WML), so as to explore the brain functions and unusual β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in WML. Hypertensive WML and brain dysfunctions were evaluated by measuring the caudal arterial pressure of model rats, and by observing the histomorphological deformations o f the prefrontal lobe, temporal lobe, hippocampus and corpus callosum, as well as by counting of the number of neurons using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) staining, and by evaluating the changes in rat brain functions, including memory and the ability of visual space learning, using the Morris Water Maze Test. In addition, the study discussed the correlation between Aβ accumulation and hypertensive WML cognitive impairment by adopting an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the level of Aβ 1-42, and by detecting the expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Beta-secretase 1 (BACE1) using Western blot. Results of the study showed that at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks and 16 weeks after operation, the blood pressure and brain Aβ expression in the rats of the model group notably increased (P less than 0.01), along with deformed and degenerated brain tissues, confirming that the unusual Aβ accumulation may participate in the occurrence and development of hypertensive WML as well as the induction of cerebral cognitive decreases.
The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of Allograft Inflammatory Factor 1 (AIF-1) on the regulation of proliferation of breast cancer cells. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), cell culture and counting, and mass spectrometry were performed. The biologically active high-purity recombinant protein rhAIF-1 was obtained by optimizing the rhAIF-1 protein purification system, and MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-361 breast cancer cell lines were used. After adding to the culture medium, rhAIF-1 was found to promote cell proliferation in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners. The purified protein rhAIF-1 was marked with rhodamine and incubated with the cells. Confocal imaging analysis revealed that the foreign protein was localized in the cytoplasm, and rhAIF-1 was unevenly distributed in the cytoplasm. Although AIF-1 accumulates around the nucleus, it can not enter the nucleus, suggesting that other factors might be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation. In order to find the possible interacting protein of rhAIF-1, protein immunoprecipitation technique and mass spectrometry were employed, and it was indicated that ADAM28m was the possible interacting protein of rhAIF-1. The interaction between rhAIF-1 and ADAM28m was validated by immunoprecipitation along with Western blotting. It was found that rhAIF-1 could precipitate ADAM28m protein by immunoprecipitation. The results indicated that IF-1 participates in the development of breast cancer by interacting with ADAM28m and activating downstream signaling pathways. It was concluded that AIF-1 provides a new idea for the molecular mechanism of breast cancer cell proliferation and acts as a new target for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer in the future.