Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly contagious virus that infects humans and a number of animal species causing coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), a respiratory distress syndrome which has provoked a global pandemic and a serious health crisis in most countries across our planet. COVID-19 inflammation is mediated by IL-1, a disease that can cause symptoms such as fever, cough, lung inflammation, thrombosis, stroke, renal failure and headache, to name a few. Strategies that inhibit IL-1 are certainly helpful in COVID-19 and can represent one of the therapeutic options. However, until now, COVID-19 therapy has been scarce and, in many cases, ineffective, since there are no specific drugs other than the vaccine that can solve this serious health problem. Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines which are the newest approach, are already available and will certainly meet the many expectations that the population is waiting for. mRNA vaccines, coated with protected soft fatty lipids, use genetic mRNA (plus various inactive excipients) to make a piece of the coronavirus spike protein, which will instruct the immune system to produce specific antibodies. The soft fatty lipids allow the entry of mRNA into cells where it is absorbed into the cytoplasm and initiates the synthesis of the spike protein. In addition, vaccination also activates T cells that help the immune system respond to further exposure to the coronavirus. mRNA induces the synthesis of antigens of SARS-CoV-2 virus which stimulate the antibody response of the vaccinated person with the production of neutralizing antibodies. The new variant of the coronavirus-19 has been detected in the UK where, at the moment, the London government has imposed a lockdown with restrictions on international movements. The virus variant had already infected 1/4 of the total cases and in December 2020, it reached 2/3 of those infected in the UK. It has been noted that the spreading rate of the British variant could be greater than 70% of cases compared to the normal SARS-CoV-2 virus, with an R index growth of 0.4. Recent studies suggest that coronavirus-19 variation occurs at the level N501Y of the spike protein and involves 23 separate mutations on the spike, 17 of which are linked to the virus proteins, thus giving specific characteristics to the virus. In general, coronaviruses undergo many mutations that are often not decisive for their biological behavior and does not significantly alter the structure and the components of the virus. This phenomenon also occurs in SARS-CoV-2. It is highly probable that the variants recently described in the UK will not hinder vaccine-induced immunity. In fact, the variant will not break the vaccine although it may have some chance of making it a little less effective. Therefore, it is pertinent to think that the vaccine will work against the SARS-CoV-2 variant as well. In today's pandemic, the D614G mutation of the amino acid of corronavirus-19, which emerged in Europe in February 2020 is the most frequent form and causes high viral growth. The previously infrequent D614G mutation is now globally dominant. This variant, which is being tested by many international laboratories, is rapidly spreading across the countries and a series of vaccinated subjects are testing to see if their antibodies can neutralize the new variant of SARS-CoV-2. This variant has a very high viral growth and is less detectable with the RT-PCR technique in the laboratory. It has been reported that the British variant that increases viral load does not cause more severe effects in the respiratory tract and lung disease, therefore, it is certain that the variant is growing rapidly and must be kept under control; for this reason, laboratory data is expected impatiently. The study on the many variants that coronavirus-19 presents is very interesting and complete and clearer data on this topic will be ready in the near future. In addition, it is still unclear whether the different variants discovered in many countries, including Africa, share the same spike protein mutation and therefore, this is another study to elaborate on. In order to be certain and to not have unexpected surprises, we need to reduce the spread and the transmission speed of viral variants that could appear around the world, creating new pandemics. For this reason, the scientific community is on the alert since laboratory tests on serum antibodies from COVID-19 survivors have been reported to be less effective in attacking the variant. In light of the above, the scientific community must be on the alert as larger variants of the spike protein could escape vaccine-induced antibodies, which for now are of great help to the community and can save millions of lives. Deepening the study of spike protein mutations will help to better understand how to combat coronavirus-19 and its variants.
Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) affects mostly women and is characterized by pelvic pain or pressure and frequency of voiding in the absence of urinary tract infection. Acute stress worsens IC/PBS symptoms and bladder inflammation associated with increased number of activated mast cells. We investigated retroactively the incidence of spontaneous miscarriages and any related stress in IC/PBS patients. A questionnaire was posted on an IC/PBS website and patients visiting the site were invited to complete and file it electronically. Limitations include the lack of defined diagnosis of those responding, and of a validated stress questionnaire. There were 193 respondents (mean age = 37.3 years) over two weeks. Of those responding, 87% (mean age = 33.2 years) had received a diagnosis of IC/PBS. Of those respondents with IC/PBS, 76% reported having had miscarriages: (a) 55% had one miscarriage, (b) 26% had two, and (c) 23% had three or more. These rates are much higher than those of in the general population: 10-20% with one and 1-2% with habitual spontaneous miscarriages. The majority of patients (78%) reported experiencing significant stress. IC/PBS patients appear to have a much high incidence of spontaneous miscarriages compared to the general population. Most patients reported experiencing stress that has been associated with miscarriages. This finding may be explained via stress stimulating bladder and uterine immune cells, especially mast cells, inhibition of which by the natural flavonoid luteolin may be beneficial.
The disturbance of the sympathetic-vagal balance with increasing sympathetic activity and consecutive increase in cytokine release is a major threat in numerous hyperinflammatory syndromes. Therapeutic interventions that modulate the activity in the sympathetic-vagal system are suggested as an effective treatment in these incidences. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of electrical stimulation of the gastric wall on sympathetic-vagal balance. German domestic pigs (n=5) were prepared with a modified gastric tube (mGT) for repetitive gastric electrical stimulation (GES). Electrocardiogram was recorded continuously and heart rate variability (HRV) as measure of sympathetic-vagal activity was calculated for three-minute epochs at baseline condition before GES and during GES condition. In comparison to baseline, activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) shifted significantly toward increased dominance of vagal activity during GES with a decrease of normalized low frequency (nLF from 58.00 to 25.52) as marker of sympathetic dominance and parallel increase of normalized high frequency (nHF from 41.48 to 74.16) as marker of vagal dominance. During GES, compared to baseline, no difference in heart rate was found. These results indicate that electrical stimulation of the gastric wall may result in shifting the sympathetic-vagal balance toward a parasympathetic predominance.
We aimed to explore the effects of probiotics on intestinal flora, inflammation and degree of liver cirrhosis in rats with liver cirrhosis, and to verify the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway that regulates this process. A total of 30 SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, namely, control group (n=10), model group (n=10) and probiotic group (n=10). Rats in the model group were used to construct liver cirrhosis models using carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) method, and those in the probiotic group were administered with probiotic preparations by gavage for 8 weeks. Then the feces of rats in each group were taken to detect the composition of intestinal flora, and changes in the content of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), in peripheral blood collected were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Next, changes in the degree of liver cirrhosis were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and the expression levels of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway-related molecules, including β-catenin, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and Frizzled-2, in liver tissues in each group were detected via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting (WB). Compared with rats in the control group, those in the model group had a disordered structure of hepatic lobule and hyperplasia of a large number of fibrous tissues. In contrast to those in the model group, the liver lobule structure was greatly improved, the edema cells were obviously reduced, and the hyperplasia of collagen fibers was remarkably alleviated in the probiotic group. Moreover, the degree of liver cirrhosis in the probiotic group was significantly reduced compared with that in the model group. Moreover, the rats in the model group exhibited a higher Bifidobacterium level in the intestinal tract, while those in the probiotic group displayed higher levels of microorganisms in the intestinal tract, such as Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Actinbacteria, Slackia and Pasteurellaceae. In comparison with that in the control group, the level of salt-tolerant Lactobacillus in the intestinal tract of rats in the model group was significantly decreased, while that in the probiotic group was partially increased (P=0.023). Meanwhile, some intestinal flora of rats in the control group, model group and probiotic group were closely correlated. Specifically, highly positive correlations were found between Bacteroidetes and Paraeggerthella (r=0.423, P=0.034) and between Firmicutes and Lactobacillus (r=0.318, P=0.027), but strongly negative associations were detected between Firmicutes and Paraeggerthella (r=-0.691, p=0.004) and between Paraeggerthella and Lactobacillus (r=-0.384, P=0.047). In addition, the levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α IL-6, MCP-1 and IFN-γ in the plasma of rats in the model group were markedly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05), whereas such levels in the probiotic group were decreased compared with those in the model group (P<0.05). PCR results revealed that the expression levels of β-catenin and Frizzled-2 in the model group were higher than those in the control group, whereas they were lower in the probiotic group than those in the model group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the model group had a decreased level of GSK-3β in comparison with the control group, but the probiotic group had a higher level of GSK-3β than the model group (P<0.05). WB results were consistent with PCR results. Probiotics can affect intestinal flora, inflammation and degree of liver cirrhosis in rats with liver cirrhosis, and its mechanism may be related to the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
There are many risk factors for gastric cancer (GC), including chronic atrophic gastritis, which involves multiple genes and signaling pathways. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was performed on GSE111762 to construct free-scale gene co-expression networks and identified four significant modules that consisted of blue, dark orange, dark red and dark violet. In each module, genes with the most connectivity were selected as hub genes, including G antigen 12J (GAGE12J) in blue, proline, histidine and glycine rich 1 (PHGR1) in dark orange, DNA polymerase gamma 2, accessory subunit (POLG2) in dark red and collagen type XXI alpha 1 chain (COL21A1) in dark violet. The transcription level of COL21A1 and GAGE12J was up-regulated in atrophic gastritis vs normal gastric mucosa, but down-regulated in GC vs atrophic gastritis. PHGR1 was consistently down-regulated from normal gastric mucosa to GC, while POLG2 was up-regulated. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was then conducted to study the biological functions of hub genes in the development of GC. It showed that multiple tumorigenesis-related pathways were enriched, including peroxisome, DNA repair and KRAS signaling pathway in COL21A1, IL6-JAK-STAT3, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and TNFα-NF-κB signaling pathway in PHGR1, MYC targets, E2F targets and angiogenesis in POLG2 and peroxisome, Notch signaling pathway and androgen response in GAGE12J. The identified four genes, especially for COL21A1, PHGR1 and POLG2, were important in GC tumorigenesis and affected many cancer-related pathways.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) exert either as tumor-inhibiting or oncogenic roles in tumorigenesis of lung cancer. In the present study, we identified a novel microRNA (miR)-27a as being involved in the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells. Therefore, we sought to characterize its potential underlying mechanism in lung cancer cell sensitivity to radiotherapy. To this end, A549 and H460 cells irradiated with 8 Gy irradiation (IR) were used as a cell model. RT-qPCR exhibited that the expression of miR-27a increased, whereas ZEB1 was poorly expressed in A549 and H460 cells exposed to IR. As reflected by dual-luciferase reporter gene assay, miR-27a could target and inversely modulate ZEB1 expression. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments exhibited that miR-27 inhibition promoted proliferation of IR-treated A549 and H460 cells and reduced the sensitivity of A549 and H460 cells to radiotherapy, which was rescued by silencing of ZEB1. Further, miR-27a inhibition disrupted the homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair, evidenced by reduced ATM, pCHK2 and Rad51 levels. Collectively, miR-27a activates HR-mediated DNA repair by inhibiting ZEB1 expression to enhance the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells, highlighting a therapeutic target for lung cancer radiosensitivity.
Leptin has been linked to acute lung injury (ALI) through its regulation of immune responses. We aimed to scrutinize the effects of leptin on nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3), nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors with caspase activation and recruitment domain 4 (NLRC4), and nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors with caspase activation and recruitment domain 3 (NLRC3), as an essential part of the immune system, in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) of rats. In the present study, pathogen-free adult male SD rats were given saline or leptin, followed by ventilation. Lung tissue samples, bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF), and blood were collected four hours after installation. Notable acute lung inflammation induced by mechanical ventilation is well-characterized by a massive increase in lung injury score and wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. We also observed VILI was associated with interleukin (IL-1β and IL-18). Rats that received ventilation showed a decrease in the levels of NLRP3 and NLRC4, and an increased level of NLRC3. Pre-treatment with leptin could abolish all of these effects induced by VILI. It has been suggested that the regulation of NLRP3, NLRC4, and NLRC3 may underlie the protection observed during VILI by exogenous leptin.
Asthma is an inflammatory pulmonary illness that plagues infants and young children. We carried out this investigation to examine the role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) RNA component of mitochondrial RNA processing endoribonuclease (RMRP) in an asthmatic mouse model induced by ovalbumin (OVA) and human airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). Eight-week-old mice were sensitized with OVA to simulate pediatric asthma. The expression patterns of RMRP, microRNA-206 (miR-206) and C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) in pulmonary tissues were evaluated by qPCR. In addition, the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were detected by ELISA. The expression of RMRP and CCL2 was elevated, while miR-206 was reduced in OVA-induced mice. Our findings indicated that administration of RMRP overexpression in ASMCs increased the levels of biomarkers in asthma. RMRP functioned as a sponge for miR-206 to upregulate CCL2 expression. Blockade of the TGF-β/Smad2 signaling pathway in ASMCs overexpressing RMRP suppressed the inflammatory cytokines and cell viability, while enhancing apoptosis. The RMRP/miR-206/CCL2 regulatory axis is implicated in the occurrence of pediatric asthma.
This study aimed at probing into the function of muscone in ameliorating myocardial ischemiareperfusion (I/R) injury and exploring the underlying mechanism. To analyze the function of muscone, H9c2 cardiomyocytes were treated with hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with left anterior descending (LAD) of the coronary artery ligation for 30 min and reperfusion for 2 h to induce myocardial I/R injury. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the expression of SIRT3. MTT assay and TUNEL assay were performed to investigate H9c2 viability and apoptosis, respectively. ELISA was employed to determine the expressions of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and myocardial injury markers CK and LDH. Oxidative stress markers MDA and SOD, and ROS expression levels were also detected. SIRT3 inhibitor 3-TYP was used to further confirm whether muscone worked via the augmentation of SIRT3. Herein, we found that muscone significantly inhibited inflammation and oxidative stress in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in a dose-dependent manner. H9c2 viability was promoted by muscone while apoptosis was inhibited. In SD rats, pre-treatment of muscone alleviated I/R injury-induced cardiac function dysregulation and left ventricle remolding. Furthermore, muscone increased SIRT3 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. With 3-TYP inhibiting SIRT3, the protective effects of muscone in H9c2 cardiomyocytes and SD rats were all significantly alleviated. In summary, muscone can attenuate inflammation, oxidative stress and cardiomyocytes injury in H9c2 cells treated with H/R and alleviate myocardial I/R injury of SD rats, which are dependent on SIRT3.
This study aimed to detect the expression of Wnt-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1) in renal fibrosis (RF) and to clarify the underlying mechanism. An in vivo mousee model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and in vitro model of fibrosis on renal tubular epithelial NRK52E cells after transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) stimulation were used. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blot (WB), and immunohistochemistry were used to detect WISP-1 and fibrosis markers, including the expression of fibronectin (FN), collagen I (Col I), collagen IV (Col IV), and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). In vitro experiments showed that the expression of WISP-1 and fibrosis markers FN, Col I, Col IV, and α-SMA in rat renal tubular epithelial cells were significantly higher than that in the control group after 48 h of TGF-β1 stimulation. In vivo experiments showed that the expressions of WISP-1 and fibrosis markers FN, Col I, Col IV, and α-SMA in the obstructed kidney of UUO animal models were significantly increased in mRNA and protein levels compared to normal mice. This study showed that WISP-1 may be an essential cytokine that promotes renal fibrosis, being involved in the development of renal fibrosis.
Regular exercise induces intramuscular triglyceride accumulation with improved mitochondrial ability, but the mechanism remains unknown. The glycolytic product of exercise, lactate, has long been rec-ognized to suppress lipolysis and promote lipogenesis in adipocytes through inhibition of the cAMP-PKA pathway by activation of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR81). However, whether lactate results in a similar process in skeletal muscle is unclear. Here, by using intramuscular injection of lactate to the gastrocnemius, the lipid metabolism effects were investigated in rat skeletal muscle. Firstly, the lactate-injection effect was verified by comparing changes in blood lactate levels from injection and exercise (30 min, 31 m/min, treadmill running). After five weeks of lactate intervention, intramuscular triglyceride levels in the gastrocnemius and the proportion of epididymis adipose mass to body weight increased. Chronic intramuscular injection of lactate elevated lactate receptor, GPR81, and reduced cAMP response element-binding (CREB) and P-CREB abundance in the gastrocnemius. Additionally, there was a significant decline in lipolytic-related proteins (AMPK, P-AMPK, P-HSL, CPT-1B, TGF-β2, SDHA) and a significant increase in fat synthesis proteins (SREBP-1C, PPAR-γ). Surprisingly, mitochondrial biomarkers (PGC-1α, CS) were also increased in the gastrocnemius, suggesting that chronic lactate might promote mitochondria biogenesis. Together, these results demonstrated that lactate may play a crucial role in triglyceride storage and mitochondria biogenesis in the skeletal muscle of rat.
Peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PADI4), an enzyme that converts arginine residues to citrulline residues in the presence of calcium ions, affects the biochemical activities of proteins. The biological function of PADI4 as well as its mechanism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) necessitates further investigation. PADI4 expression in NPC tissues and cells was detected using Western blot. qRT-PCR was used to determine the expression of miR-335-5p and PADI4 mRNA in NPC tissues and cells. BrdU assay and CCK-8 assay were employed to detect cell proliferation. Cell migration and invasion were evaluated using Transwell assay. NPC cells were exposed to different doses of radiation in vitro, and then colony formation assays were used to detect colony survival. The target relationship between miR-335-5p and PADI4 was verified using Western blot, qRT-PCR, and dual-luciferase reporter gene assays. Compared with normal mucosal epithelial tissues and cell lines, the expression level of PADI4 in NPC tissues and cells was significantly up-regulated. PADI4 overexpression promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of NPC cells. Under radiation, NPC cell survival was significantly promoted by the up-regulation of PADI4. Conversely, knock-down of PADI4 suppressed the above-mentioned malignant phenotypes. MiR-335-5p could bind with the 3' UTR of PADI4 mRNA, and suppressed the expression of PADI4. PADI4 down-regulated the expression of p21 and activated the mTOR signaling pathway. PADI4, which is negatively regulated by miR-335-5p, promotes the proliferation, migration, invasion and radioresistance of NPC cells by regulating the p21 and mTOR signaling pathways.
Visceral artery aneurysm (VAA) is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition, defined as true artery aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms of splanchnic circulation and renal artery. This study reports our experience in the diagnosis and endovascular treatment of visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs) over a 10-year period. Between 2008 and 2018, a total of 24 VAAs in 21 patients were diagnosed by clinical symptoms and a combination of imaging techniques, such as Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography angiogram, and catheter angiogram. All patients underwent endovascular treatment to exclude aneurysms. Oral antiplatelet medicine was administered, and imaging examination was performed during follow-up. Technical success was achieved in all 21 patients, and no periprocedural complications occurred. Endovascular coiling alone was employed in 10 aneurysms. Coiling was combined with gelfoam in 2 aneurysms. Coiling was assisted by stent in 4 aneurysms. Covered stents were deployed in 8 aneurysms individually. Clinical symptoms disappeared or highly improved in all patients after treatment. None of the patients showed recurrent symptoms after discharge. However, two cases with new aneurysms after 6 and 8 months, respectively, and one case with in-stent thrombosis after 12 months were reported during follow-up. This study may justify the efficacy of percutaneous endovascular coil embolization and stent deployment. It also provides beneficial experience about how to choose appropriate various endovascular strategies based on both clinical symptoms and aneurysm anatomy condition.
Sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (SIMD) leads to poor prognosis or even death in severe sepsis cases, therefore, exploring its pathogenesis and new therapeutic targets has become the focus of current research. Specifically, an SIMD rat model was constructed by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) method. At 24 h after intraperitoneal injection of the NLRP3 selective inhibitor MCC950, the levels of serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum were detected, and the cardiac function of rats was examined via echocardiography. In addition, the pathological changes of myocardial tissues were observed by histological method, and the expression changes of inflammatory factors were detected in the tissue and serum. At the same time, H9C2 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to simulate the in vitro model, and the expressions of inflammation and pyroptosis-related factors were detected. The results manifested that in the CLP group, the levels of serum cTnI and LDH were obviously increased, the myocardial tissue structure was disordered, the cell edema was severe, and the cardiac function was markedly reduced. Meanwhile, the expressions of inflammatory factors IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α rose remarkably. On the contrary, MCC950 effectively reversed the above situation. Moreover, MCC950 inhibited LPS-induced inflammation and pyroptosis of H9C2 cells. In conclusion, the NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 can reduce the release of LDH and other cellular inflammatory factors in the cytoplasm, thereby improving the cardiac function and slowing down the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, which may be related to the inhibition of NLRP3/Caspase-1/IL-1β pathway.
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent primary malignancy in bone, and commonly occurs in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the aberrant expression of miR-1274a in OS patients, and to evaluate the role of miR-1274a as a prognostic biomarker and tumor suppressor in OS progression. miR-1274a expression was estimated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the prognostic value of miR-1274a in OS. Gain- and loss-of-function in vitro experiments were used to explore the functional role of miR-1274a in OS progression. A target gene of miR-1274a was analyzed using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. miR-1274a expression was decreased in OS tissues and associated with distant metastasis and clinical stages in OS patients. Low miR-1274a could predict poor overall survival and disease-free survival in OS. The overexpression of miR-1274a could inhibit OS cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Additionally, ADAM9 was demonstrated to serve as a direct target of miR-1274a in OS cells. In conclusion, reduced miR-1274a predicts poor prognosis and serves as a potential tumor suppressor in OS. ADAM9 is a target of miR-1274a, which may mediate the functional role of miR-1274a in OS progression.
For dental impression of a prepared tooth, the goal is a void-free negative representation from which an accurate cast of a tooth and its surrounding tissue can be reproduced. This in-vitro study assessed and compared the reproduction accuracies of surface detail obtained with three different dental elastomeric impression materials: vinyl polysiloxane (VPS), vinyl polyether silicone (VPES), and polyether (PE). A stainless-steel model with two abutments was used, with impressions taken 10 times for each material, for 20 abutment impressions per group, using a two-phase, one-step technique (heavy body/light body). The impressions were removed and assessed for numbers of enclosed voids and open voids visible on the surface. The defect frequency was 95% for impressions with the VPS and VPES materials, and 30% for the PE material. No significant differences were seen for number of impressions with defects for VPS versus VPES. Significant differences were seen for VPS and VPES versus the PE material (P<.05). No significant differences were seen for the defect type distributions across these three impression materials. The PE impression material showed better accuracy for reproduction of surface detail of these dental impressions compared to the VPS and VPES impression materials.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a worldwide medical challenge due to the scarcity of proper information and remedial resources. The ability to efficiently avoid a further SARS-CoV-2 pandemic will, therefore, depend on understanding several factors which include host immunity, virus behavior, prevention measures, and new therapies. This is a multi-phase observatory study conducted in the SG Moscati Hospital of Taranto in Italy that was converted into COVID-19 Special Care Unit for SARS-Co-V2 risk management. Patients were admitted to the 118 Emergency Pre-Hospital and Emergency Department based on two diagnostic criteria, the nasopharyngeal swab assessed by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) and CT-scan image characterized by ground glass opacity. Patients were divided into four groups, positive-positive (ER-PP), negative-positive (ER-NP), negative-negative (ER-NN) and a group admitted to the ICU (ER-IC). A further control group was added when the T and B lymphocyte subsets were analyzed. Data included gender, age, vital signs, arterial blood gas analysis (ABG), extensive laboratory results with microbiology and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) which were analyzed and compared. Fundamental differences were reported among the groups. Males were significantly higher in PP, ICU, and NP groups, from 2 to 4-fold higher than females, while in the NN group, the number of females was mildly higher than males; the PP patients showed a marked alkalotic, hypoxic, hypocapnia ABG profile with hyperventilation at the time of admission; finally, the laboratory and microbiology results showed lymphopenia, fibrinogen, ESR, CRP, and eGFR were markedly anomalous. The total number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was dramatically reduced in COVID-19 patients with levels lower than the normal range delimited by 400/μL and 800/μL, respectively, and were negatively correlated with blood inflammatory responses.