Much evidence suggests a cross-talking between nerve fibers and the immunity system. The immunomodulation by substance P includes cell activation and proliferation of human cells, with cytokine and chemokine generation and release. Substance P was first isolated by Leeman et al. as an undecapeptide with important neurotransmitter-neuromodulator effects. In addition, substance P was shown to induce and mediate inflammation, angiogenesis, infections, intestinal mucosal immunity and stress. Substance P is able to activate several immune cells, such as CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, mast cells, NK cells and macrophages. In recent studies we have shown that substance P can activate interleukin-8, a CXC chemokine, demonstrating its involvement in immune cell chemoattraction. We believe that substance P is important in understanding the pathophysiology of inflammation.
The pathogenesis of coeliac disease (CD) is complex. One controversial aspect is the role of IgA anti-endomysial (EMA) antibodies. Despite being the most reliable marker for CD diagnosis, its role in the pathogenesis (if any) remains obscure. The paradox is reinforced by the observation that CD is more common in IgA-deficient individuals. In this review, we discuss recent data suggesting that IgA autoantibodies may be related to aspecific dysregulation of IgA. In addition, new insights have elucidated new genes involved in IgA production and linked to CD. Allelic frequency of HS1,2 enhancer which regulates Ig synthesis is altered in CD and other IgA mediated disorders. We suggest that in CD, a T-cell mediated disease, the role of IgA anti-EMA autoantibodies remains elusive and could well be merely an epiphenomenon not directly related to pathogenic mechanisms, but rather to a state of heightened immunological responsiveness in genetically predisposed individuals.
The influence of magnesium and ethanol on the fatty acid content in isolated rat hepatocytes was examined in this study. The isolated liver cells were obtained according to the Selgen method and then subjected to ethanol alone or both ethanol and magnesium activity. MgCl2 was used in two concentrations: 2 and 4 mM. The profile of fatty acids in the hepatocytes was evaluated after 5 hours of incubation. Our results revealed that magnesium ions presented together with ethanol in hepatocyte medium changed the hepatocyte fatty acid profile. The total amounts depended on the concentration of magnesium ions.
In this study we investigated the property of a new medical substance, in the form of a gel compound containing four aminoacids (glycine, leucine, proline, lysine) and sodium hyaluronate (AMINOGAM), to accelerate the wound healing process of the soft oral tissues and to promote angiogenesis in vivo in the vascular proliferation in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Furthermore, we investigated the capacity of AMINOGAM to induce the expression of an angiogenic cytokine, namely vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human fibroblasts in vitro. Results showed that AMINOGAM promoted wound healing in post-surgical wounds (after teeth extraction, oral laser surgery with secondary healing without direct suture of the surgical wound, and after dental implant insertion). Stimulated angiogenesis in vivo in the CAM assay and the response was similar to that obtained with vascular endothelial growth factor, a well-known angiogenic cytokine, tested in the same assay, and confirmed by clinical outcomes, which showed reduction of the healing time of oral soft tissues after three different kinds of surgery and also the absence of post-operative infections.
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is characterized by a Th2 polarized immune response. Specific Immunotherapy modifies this bias restoring a physiologic Th1 profile. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is widely prescribed, but there is no early, simple marker of response. This study was undertaken in order to determine whether serum IL-4 might be a possible marker of SLIT immunological response in order to quickly and easily detect responder patients. Thirty-nine AR patients with a pollen allergy assumed preseasonal SLIT for 3 months. VAS for symptoms and medication efficacy were evaluated. Serum IL-4 was assessed before and 3 and 6 months after SLIT initiation. Eighty-two percent of patients (32/39) showed a clinical response to SLIT. Serum IL-4 significantly decreased at 6 months post-therapy in responders, whereas it increased in non-responders. In conclusion, these results may be considered clinically relevant proof that SLIT treatment induces a quick reduction in Th2 polarization. Serum IL-4 appears to be an early marker of immunological response to SLIT.
Oral leukoplakia is the most common and potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The definition of leukoplakia given by the World Health Organization is ?a white plaque that cannot be characterized either from a clinical or from a histopathological point of view?, thus the diagnosis of leukoplakia is based on the exclusion of other lesions of the oral mucosa. We believe it is necessary to identify molecular and immunohistochemical parameters that can contribute to discriminating between the different leukoplakia clinical subtypes coded by the epidemiology. In the present work we show the preliminary results of this research project. We investigated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a verrucous proliferative leukoplakia sample. By immunohistochemistry we detected the presence of all the three proteins both in the leukoplakia samples and in healthy oral mucosa, while the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed in both samples only the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 but not iNOS.
Among human rickettsial diseases caused by micro-organisms of the genus Rickettsia (Order Rickettsiales; Family Rickettsiaceae), transmitted to human hosts through arthropod vectors, Mediterranean Spotted Fever, or Boutonneuse Fever, and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever are considered to be important infectious diseases due to continued prevalence in the developed world, and potentially fatal outcome in severe cases. Proliferation of rickettsiae, at the site of the tick bite, results in focal epidermal and dermal necrosis (tache noire). Rickettsiae then spread via lymphatic vessels to the regional lymph nodes, and, via the bloodstream, to skin, brain, lungs, heart, liver, spleen and kidneys. The pathogen invades and proliferates in the endothelial cells of small vessels, target cells of rickettsial infection, destroying them, and spreading the infection to the endothelia of the vascular tree. The damage of the endothelium, and the subsequent endothelia dysfunction, is followed by the activation of acute phase responses, with alteration in the coagulation and in the cytokine network, together with a transient immune dysregulation, characterized by the reduction in peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes.
Impetigo herpetiformis (IH) is a rare dermatosis arising during the third trimester of pregnancy which is generally considered as a form of pustular psoriasis of unknown aetiology. Clinically it is characterized by erythematous plaques surrounded by sterile pustules associated with fever, diarrhea, sweating and increasing risk of stillbirth for placental insufficiency. We describe a case of developed erythematous plaques surrounded by pustules localised initially to the trunk of a 35-year-old woman at the 34th week of gestation after 5 days of treatment with N-Butyl-Scopolammonium, and which later involved the upper and lower limbs. Skin histology confirmed the diagnosis of generalised pregnancy pustular psoriasis (impetigo herpetiformis). IH is reported to be associated with hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, use of oral contraceptives and bacterial infections. This is the first report suggesting the potential role of drugs other than oral contraceptives in the pathogenetic mechanism of this disease. In this case an adverse cutaneous reaction to BB could be the cause of the development of Koebner isomorphism.