Osteopetrosis is one cause of diffuse osteosclerosis and bone fragility due to abnormal remodelling rate and balance. It may cause some serious skeletal abnormalities, with particular respect to long bones, and oral complications such as osteomyelitis and exposed necrotic bone. Orthopaedists and dentists should be aware of patients with the disease because of its effect on osteoclast function, which results in impaired wound healing. The purpose of this paper is to review the aetiology, pathogenesis and bone remodelling of osteopetrosis leading to some guidance for orthopaedic surgeons and dentists on the management of patients with osteopetrosis, with particular attention to fractures.
Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae), a respiratory pathogen, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, an inflammatory progressive disease, characterized by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Among several types of inflammatory cells involved in the atherogenesis process, recently particular attention has been directed toward the mast cells. Experimental studies have provided several mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae and mast cells could play a role in all stages of atherosclerosis, from initial inflammatory lesions to plaque rupture. C. pneumoniae, as well as mast cells, may actively participate both through the production of cytokines and matrix-degrading metalloproteinases and by provoking apoptosis of atheroma-associated vascular cells, key events in plaque rupture. This mini-review provides a brief overview on adventitial inflammatory effects of C. pneumoniae and mast cells and their potential role in plaque instability. In addition, in this paper we review the role of mast cells in innate immunity.
The radiosensitizing effects of luteolin were studied in the gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. SGC-7901 cells were treated with luteolin or/and irradiation, and radiosensitizing effects were assessed by colony-forming assay with cells and nude mice. In order to study the underlying mechanism, the levels of apoptosis-related proteins, the activities of caspase-3 and -9, and the production of PGE2 were measured. The results showed that luteolin could enhance irradiation-induced colonogenic inhibition and the activities of Caspase-3 and -9. The remarkable down-regulation of Bcl-2 and release of cytochrome C were also observed. In addition, significantly reduced production of PGE(2) was observed in luteolin plus radiation treatment by ELISA, as well as decreased expression levels of VEGF and HIF-1 alpha. Finally, luteolin significantly enhances the radioresponse of human tumors transplanted into nude mice. Our results indicate that luteolin may be a promising radiosensitizer for use in the treatment of gastric cancer.
A wide variety of nasal irrigation systems are currently available for improving nasal symptoms, but few studies have compared their effectiveness with respect to patient age and type of nasal disease. This pilot study aims to compare the efficacy of two irrigation systems in 20 patients (12 males and 8 females; age range, 19-54 years; mean age, 36) with acute rhinosinusitis and treated only with antibiotic (levofloxacin 500 mg/day for 10 days) and topical nasal decongestant (naphazoline 2 puffs in each nostril twice daily for 7 days). Patients were randomly assigned to the treatments, using either a nasal syringe (10 mL saline solution, 3 times daily for 14 days) (Group 1) or the recently available Lavonase system (250 mL saline solution sac, twice daily for 14 days) (Group 2). Work-up included history, evaluation of signs and symptoms (nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea), nasal endoscopy, and anterior rhinomanometry. Nasal irrigation with the Lavonase system was found to be more effective in reducing symptoms, as all significantly diminished (p<0.05). In addition, the Lavonase system significantly decreased nasal resistances (p<0.05). This preliminary study shows that the ancillary treatment of acute rhinosinusitis with Lavonase may be useful.
The object of this study is to analyse job stress and insecurity and the perception of symptoms (health status) of 374 teachers (30 women and 74 men) with stable or temporary employment in schools in Pescara, a town in Central Italy. Job strain and job insecurity were analysed by an Italian version of the Karasek?s questionnaire, the perception of the health status by a 12 item test, and state and trait anxiety by STAI I and STAI II. There were no significant differences depending on the type of school. The young women with temporary contracts showed only higher levels of job insecurity than the women with stable employment, while those over 50 years old also showed more elevated values of job strain. Men with temporary contracts showed higher levels of both job insecurity and state and trait anxiety. The following highly significant correlations were observed: a) in women, job strain and perception of symptoms vs STAI I and STAI II (p<0.001); b) in men, job strain, job insecurity and perception of symptoms vs STAI II; job strain vs perception of symptoms as well as a negative correlation of decision latitude vs job insecurity, STAI I and STAI II (p<0.01). These results highlight differences in the perception of job insecurity between men and women. In particular, the decision latitude (skill decision + decision authority) plays an important role in men; temporary employment is mainly related to anxiety in men, while anxiety enhances the perception of poor health status mainly in women.
Adenoidal hypertrophy (AH) represents one of the most frequent indications for surgery in children. Recently, treatment with intranasal corticosteroids has been suggested to decrease the size of AH. The aim of the study is to evaluate the long-term effect of intranasal flunisolide on AH during a 12-month follow-up. One hundred seventy-eight children with a grade III or IV AH at baseline endoscopic examination were enrolled in this randomised and controlled study. Children were treated with intranasal flunisolide or isotonic saline solution for 8 weeks. Subsequent assessment, including history and fiberoptic endoscopy, was made at 8 weeks, and 6 and 12 months after treatment suspension. Flunisolide treatment was initially associated with significant (p<0.01) reduction of the degree of AH. However, during follow-up all but one of the non-allergic children relapsed, whereas most allergic children maintained AH size reduction (p<0.05). No clinically important adverse events were reported. In conclusion, this preliminary study demonstrates that an 8-week treatment with intranasal flunisolide is significantly associated with reduction of AH, however, the adenoidectomy avoidance was warranted only for allergic children.
The main problem arising from tinnitus is the disturbance it causes in day-to-day life and disturbance in sleep leading to fatigue and general discomfort. We attempted to study the effect of melatonin in conjunction with Sulodexide as a treatment method for tinnitus and evaluate its effectiveness. We studied 102 patients suffering from tinnitus with a Prospective Randomised Controlled Study conducted in a tertiary care ENT department. After randomisation, 34 patients were treated with melatonin and Sulodexide, another 34 were treated with melatonin alone, and the remaining 34 (control group) were managed without therapy in order to evaluate spontaneous variations in quality of tinnitus. Patients were assessed prospectively with Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and Acufenometry both pre-treatment and post-treatment. Among the patients we studied, we found better results with both Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and Acufenometry in the group who received melatonin and Sulodexide as against melatonin alone. Any improvement was noted in the control group. In conclusion, our opinion is that melatonin in combination with Sulodexide is a viable treatment option for patients suffering from central or sensorineural tinnitus.
Psoriasis has a major impact on patients? lives, affecting them physically, psychologically and socially. The aim of this study is to investigate psoriasis in relation to quality of life and psychological stress in two groups of patients treated with biologics and narrow-band UVB, respectively. We conducted a nonrandomized, prospective, comparative pilot study on 40 patients suffering from moderate to severe psoriasis. The comparison of the delta score of Skindex-29, Psoriasis Life Stress Inventory and the PASI at baseline and at the end of the treatment in the two groups highlighted the variation of the Psoriasis Life Stress Inventory which resulted significantly higher (P< 0.001) in the group treated with biologics. The ease of administrating the combination Etanercept and Efalizumab, with consequent reduction of stress levels, attains a better control of psoriasis compared to phototherapy.
The clinical and immunologic effects of lactoferrin and curcumin (LC) oral supplementation were examined in healthy children with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Infections were reduced in children receiving LC. Immunologic analyses showed that LC supplementation resulted in a significant skewing of CD8+T lymphocytes maturation. Additionally: 1) CD14+, toll like receptor (TLR) 2-expressing cells augmented (p= 0.005) whereas CD14+/TLR4+ diminished (p= 0.004); and 2) IL10 production by CD14+ cells was reduced in children receiving LC. LC supplementation results in immune modulation and could be clinically beneficial.
Angina bullosa haemorrhagica (ABH) is a quite rare condition characterized by one or more blood blisters or bullae in the oropharynx. Here we report a case of ABH probably caused by a traumatic event in a diabetic patients. Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and a prompt treatment alleviates the choking sensation and reduces secondary infections.
It is well-known that digestion has a pivotal role in maintaining a state of wellbeing. The influence of certain foods and some herbal drugs has been ascertained. Epidemiological data show that the Mediterranean diet, with a high consumption of fresh vegetables and fruit, mainly citrus, has a beneficial effect and plays a protective gastrointestinal role. Previously, we assessed the influence on the eventual occurrence of symptoms during digestion of an iced dessert containing a mixture of digestive plant extracts, citrus juices and liquors, showing that its ingestion does not cause significant gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy volunteers. Taking into consideration that sensory properties of food may also influence digestion, we also evaluated the palatability of the product. In order to evaluate the effect of different tastes on the digestive processes, we performed a further similar evaluation with two new flavours. The ingestion of these iced desserts at the end of the meal does not cause significant gastrointestinal symptoms. Moreover, palatability median score shows a good appreciation of the products. Therefore, the combination of digestive herbs, citrus juice and liquors in different flavours gives rise to a product with a positive mix of good palatability, favourable acceptance and herbal constituents, able to maintain a good digestive condition.