20 April 2022, Volume 36 Issue 2(S4)

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  • M. Petruzzi, A. Romano, F. Fiori, R. Borgia, M. Contaldo, R. Serpico
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 1-5. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.1
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    Autoimmune blistering diseases have been associated with exposure to the severe acute respiratorysyndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In addition, oropharyngeal Pemphigus vulgaris appears to beassociated with the coronavirus. In order to understand the molecular basis linking SARS-CoV-2 andPemphigus vulgaris, this study explores the molecular mimicry hypothesis and analyzes the peptidesharing between the Pemphigus vulgaris autoantigen, i.e., Desmoglein 3 (Dsg-3), and the SARS-CoV-2proteome. Results indicate a low molecular mimicry level, still immunologically significant, betweenSARS-CoV-2 and Dsg-3.

  • R. Grassi, M. Contaldo, A. Romano, G.M. Nardi, R. Borgia, R. Serpico, M. Petruzzi
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 7-12. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.2
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    The blistering disease Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita is a genetic/autoimmune disorder derivingfrom alterations of the human protein Collagen alpha-1(VII) chain (CO7A1). Exposure to severe acuterespiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) promotes a wide variety of autoimmune diseases andmight be a risk factor for Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita; in order to further our understanding of thelink between this blistering disease and SARS-CoV-2, this study analyzes the peptide-sharing betweenCO7A1 and SARS-CoV-2 proteome. Results indicate a high level of molecular mimicry between CO7A1and SARS-CoV-2 and hCoV-229E, and hCoV-NL63, thus suggesting a potential role of COVID-19 as arisk factor for Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

  • A. Lucchese, D. Di Stasio, R. Borgia, M. Scivetti, M. Petruzzi
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 13-18. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.3
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    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) has been repeatedly reported to occur following exposure to the severeacute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study analyzes the molecular mimicrybetween the 180 kDa bullous pemphigoid antigen 2 (BP180) and the SARS-CoV-2 proteome to further ourunderstanding of the molecular link between the BP and the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results indicate a highdegree of molecular mimicry between BP180, SARS-CoV-2, hCoV-229E and hCoV-NL63.

  • A. Lucchese, A. Fusco, G. Donnarumma, R. Borgia, A. Baroni, M. Petruzzi
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 19-25. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.4
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    Although onset/exacerbation of bullous Pemphigoid (BP) has been reported to occur frequently followingexposure to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the link, if any, betweenBP dermatoses and the viral infection remains obscure. Therefore, searching for possible molecularmechanisms, we hypothesise that molecular mimicry between BP antigens and the SARS-CoV-2 proteinsmight lead to autoimmune responses cross-reacting with the BP proteins, thus triggering the dermatosispathologies. Using this research paradigm, we analyzed the Bullous Pemphigoid antigen 1 (BP230) andthe SARS-CoV-2 proteome to share minimal immune determinants, i.e., pentapeptides. Results indicate ahigh level of molecular mimicry between BP230 and SARS-CoV-2, thus supporting the hypothesis of crossreactivityas a possible major mechanism in the SARS-CoV-2-associated BP etiopathogenesis.

  • A. Stufano, R. Borgia
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 27-34. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.5
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    In the last two decades, peptidomics, which can be defined as the science of studying the biologicalrelevance of peptides, has grown in relevance. Today, we can 1) define disease-associated–proteins in termsof short peptide modules, 2) precisely target cancer cells by hitting peptide sequences of tumour-associatedantigens, and 3) inactivate harmful cross-reactive autoantibodies, among others; indeed, scientific progresshas been made in epitope definition, and we can precisely identify the amino acid (aa) sites involved inimmunological reactions and locate antigenicity and immunogenicity within minimal immune pentapeptidedeterminants. Clinically, peptides offer new approaches for fighting the spread and re-emergence ofinfectious pathogens and provide new strategies for safe therapies in cancer and autoimmune pathologies.Here, this paper carries out a historical review of the role of peptides in medicine in the last decades.

  • M. Petruzzi, A. Romano, A. Baroni, R. Borgia, A. Fusco, G. Donnarumma, M. Contaldo, R. Serpico
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 35-42. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.6
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    OBJECTIVE: Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV) is a mucocutaneous autoimmune disease mediated byautoantibodies that often affects oral mucosa. However, little is known about the connection between oralinfections and PV. The present study addresses the hypothesis that immune responses following bacterialinfections may cross-react with PV autoantigens, thus providing the pathogenic stimulus, eventuallyleading to clinical manifestations.METHODS: Available proteomic resources and immunologic data were explored. Searching for commonpeptides that underlie immune cross-reactions, the analyses focused on pathogenic oral bacteria and PVautoantigens, i.e., Desmoglein-3 (Dsg3).RESULTS: It was found that the analysed bacteria share numerous immunoreactive heptapeptidesequences with Dsg3.CONCLUSION: These data seem to support the hypothesis that the oral microbiome may alsocontribute to the pathogenesis of PV, with important implications for the treatment of this disease.

  • F. Femiano, R. Femiano, R. Borgia
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 43-56. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.7
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    A wide variety of primitive and secondary conditions, pathologies, and lesions may affect the oral mucosa.For most of them, biopsy and histopathology are mandatory for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Chronicinflammatory and dysimmune diseases require long-life follow-up and various biopsies along with the time,as well in the case of tumors, where the timing of early diagnosis and the discovery of relapses may be sloweddown by patient and work delays. In vivo confocal microscopy (CM) offers additional real-time informationon the cytological and histological features of the epithelial lesions. The present work summarized theCM application in oral pathology and its future perspectives. In vivo CM could be usefully introduced inthe clinical practice to noninvasively monitor any histological changes occurring in the oral mucosa, thusshortening the diagnostic times, and improving the patients’ compliance to follow-ups.

  • M. Contaldo, A. Romano, F. Fiori, R. Borgia, R. Serpico
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 57-65. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.8
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    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique is based on broadband light, using a low coherenceinterferometry system. The OCT technology, in the last decades, has been widely employed in variousmedical branches, showing as a diagnostic mean capable of providing high resolution macroscopic andmicroscopic images of biological tissues. Nowadays, alongside with other in vivo diagnostic means, OCThas been introduced also in dentistry and oral medicine demonstrating as a device of considerable interestboth for hard and soft tissue of oral cavity. Current literature shows off hundreds of studies about feasibilityof OCT application for early diagnosis of oral disorders. The purpose of this paper is to analyze andsummarize the evidence present in the literature, providing an update on the state of the art of the in vivoapplication of OCT on hard and soft tissues of the oral mucosa.

  • F. Femiano, R. Femiano, R. Borgia
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 67-75. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.9
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    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive tool based on the use of a photosensitizer (PS) and a light source that can activate the PS and lead to the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). It is currently used in different fields of medicine such as gynecology, dermatology, oncology, and dentistry. In dental practice, the main branches involved are periodontology, oral pathology, orthodontics, and endodontics. PDT finds its spot against antibiotic and antimycotic resistance. Oral pathology is involved in the treatment of several oral diseases such as Oral Carcinoma, Oral Lichen Planus, Oral Candidiasis, Oral Leukoplakia, and Actinic Cheilitis. Because of its non-invasiveness, PDT has already found a place in oral pathologists’ daily practice. In this study, we aimed to analyze the main papers published regarding PDT and oral pathology or oral medicine to give a detailed picture of the state-of-the-art and to detect its possible role in the next years.

  • A. Romano, M. Montella, A. Ronchi, R. Borgia, F. Fiori, M. Contaldo, R. Serpico
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 77-86. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.10
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    OBJECTIVE: Ultrasonography (US) is a non-invasive and real-time medical imaging technique basedon the reflection of sound waves and the specific impedance of the body’s tissues. It has been used as adiagnostic aid in oral diseases both with an intraoral and extraoral approach in recent years. The fields ofapplication have been varied, from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to vesiculobullous diseases. It isadded to several other imaging technologies such as optical coherence tomography, narrow-band imaging,tissue fluorescence, and reflectance microscopy. This study aims to provide an overview of the techniqueand fields of application in the oral cavity.METHODS: Narrative overview of the literature synthesizing the findings of literature retrieved fromsearches of PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science database.RESULTS: Most studies in the literature analyze the feasibility of the US in OSCC. In OSCC, thetechnique allows for identifying the lesion in the surrounding tissue context; furthermore, the highdimensional accuracy allows for measuring the tumor thickness, giving diagnostic and prognosticinformation. Ultrasonography has been applied also to oral lichen planus (OLP), Pemphigus Vulgaris(PV), Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP), and temporomandibular joint (TMJ).CONCLUSION: The US represents a promising imaging technique in vivo and real-time for thecharacterization of oral diseases. Further studies are needed on the topic.

  • A. Romano, R. Grassi, F. Fiori, G.M. Nardi, R. Borgia, M. Contaldo, R. Serpico, M. Petruzzi
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 87-92. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.11
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    Oral Lichen planus (LP) is an immune-mediated disease of unknown etiology that affects the oralmucous membranes. Six clinical forms of OLP lesions can be detected individually or associated: papular,reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous. The antigen that triggers the inflammatory immunereaction in OLP lesions is yet unclear. The correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections andOral Lichen Planus has been reported in the literature. The present work summarized the evidence toestablish if EBV can play a role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  • M. Contaldo, R. Grassi, F. Fiori, G.M. Nardi, R. Borgia, A. Romano, R. Serpico, M. Petruzzi
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 93-98. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.12
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    Oral Lichen planus (LP) is an immune-mediated disease of unknown etiology involving oral mucous.OLP lesions can be single or multiple and with the following clinical variants: papular, reticular, plaquelike,atrophic, erosive, and bullous. The antigen that activates the inflammatory immune reaction in OLPlesions is unknown. The literature reports a correlation between Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infectionsand Oral Lichen Planus. The present paper recapped the evidence to establish if HPV can be a playerin the etiopathogenesis of the disease.

  • L. Bonaccorso, R. Spena, P. Albertini, M. Palone, F. Cremonini
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 99-113. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.13
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    This systematic review of the literature aims to assess the scientific evidence regarding incisal guidancefrom both aesthetic and functional perspectives. The ultimate aim was to provide the clinician with evidencebasedguidelines to assist in routine dental practice. The Medline database (PubMed) was searched for relevantarticles using the keywords “incisal guidance” and “anterior dental guidance” and no time constraints.Types of studies selected were randomised clinical trials (RTCs); prospective, retrospective and transversalstudies; controlled clinical trials; and comparative studies. This search furnished 252 articles, but only eightwere deemed suitable for review after application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The final samplecontained no RCTs, comprising only transversal clinical trials. No study included a previous sample sizeestimation, and none performed method error analysis. None of the subjects analysed dropped out. Onlyone article featured blind measurements, and only one a randomly selected sample. The description of thecharacteristics of the test subjects was judged to be adequate in five studies, intermediate in one, and poor intwo. The quality of the articles was deemed to be low in three cases, and intermediate in the remaining five.Given the heterogeneity of the articles deemed suitable for review and the poor statistical power of several, itwas not possible to formulate evidence-based guidelines. Nevertheless, several indications useful for clinicalpractice are suggested, particularly as regards combined orthodontic-restorative treatments.

  • G. Sinato, D. Guiducci, L.H. Ghislanzoni, P. Albertini
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 115-126. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.14
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    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to analyze the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of CarriereMotion® 3D™ appliance (CMA; Henry Schein Orthodontics, Carlsbad, Calif) followed by full fixedmultibracket appliance. The results were then compared to a sample treated with class II elastics and fullfixed multibracket appliance.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment records of 30 Caucasian patients with initial class IImalocclusion were retrospectively selected and divided into two groups. In Group 1, patients were treatedwith the Carriere Motion® 3D™ device, and in Group 2 with class II elastics, both followed by fixedmultibrackets appliance. Digital dental casts were analyzed using the VAM (Vectra, Canfield Scientific,Fairfield, NJ, USA) software to gather in-out, tip and torque values to compare the data between the twogroups. Lateral cephalograms before and after treatments were analyzed.RESULTS: The dental cast analysis revealed a reduced tip of the upper canine and upper first molar,mainly in Group 1, meaning that the Carriere Motion® 3D™ appliance causes a distal inclination of thecrowns to which it is bonded. From lateral cephalograms analysis emerged that skeletal values changeswere not statistically significant. Indeed, we observed mainly dento-alveolar variations in both groups.CONCLUSIONS: The Carriere Motion® 3D™ appliance was not able to determine a bodily distalmovement of upper molars, but a combination of lower and upper dental effects. No statistically significantdifferences were found in the correction of class II malocclusion when compared to the group treated withintermaxillary elastics.

  • M. Falzoni, M. Cappelletti, F. Cremonini
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 127-140. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.15
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    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the metal ion release from new brackets ofdifferent origins, manufacture and composition and the metal ion release of used brackets after at least 12months of treatment. At the same time, corrosion tests were performed to assess whether the difference ingeographical origin and the marketing price are correlated to a better quality of the product. METHODS:Four different brackets were selected: Damon MX3 (Ormco, California), Victory SS (Monrovia, California),Equilibrium 2 (Dentaurum, Germany) and Hangzhou ORJ (Hangzhou ORJ Medical Instrument &Material Co.,Ltd. Sandun-China). Thirty brackets for each brand were randomly selected from newpacks. Brackets from the oral cavity were sterilised at 134° for 35 min. An artificial saliva was preparedaccording to the Meyer-Fusayama recipe at three different pH 2.5/4.5/7.0. The brackets, divided into thethree different pH were immersed in artificial saliva at 37° for 28 days. In addition, potentiodynamicelectrochemical tests were carried out to analyse the behaviour of the brackets when forced to corrode.RESULTS: Ion releases are higher at pH 2.5, being critical nickel and copper releases from the HangzhouORJ. In pH 4.5 the Hangzhou ORJ bracket shows significant nickel and copper release, far from theguard levels. At pH 7 Hangzhou ORJ bracket shows some nickel release while other attachments are inert.CONCLUSION: the brackets on the market are safe and comply with the recommended safety standards.If the patient is suspected of being sensitive to nickel or chromium, it is prudent not to use materials withcritical releases of these elements.

  • M. Palone, G. Greco, E. Morin
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 141-155. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.16
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    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in-vitro study is to be able to provide useful information to implementadequate preservation of the impression before and during sending to the appropriate dental prostheticlaboratories, allowing good management of the materials used and the time spent in the chair.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study evaluated a total of 210 specimens, of which 168 alginatespecimens and 42 silicone specimens, taking a total of 18,228 measurements. The dimensional stabilitywas assessed by measuring linear dimensions and the weight at certain time points.RESULTS: The effects within the sample group due to the time factor, the combination of timeand alginate, the combination of time and environment are significantly important, both for LinearDimension and for Weight. The effects of the factors between groups, “type of alginate” and “type ofenvironment” are also significant. For silicones, the storage temperature and the type of mixing werenot considered as factors that can influence their behavior. On the other hand, the combination of timeand silicone is significant in the linear dimension, in fact the various types of silicone vary over time indifferent ways. Instead, the interaction between time and the type of conservation environment does notgenerate significant differences.CONCLUSION: This first hypothesis has been refused, the data obtained show that the variousbrands of alginates on the market demonstrate different characteristics of stability as a function oftime. The second hypothesis was confirmed by the data obtained, in fact the impressions made withsilicones can be stored at room temperature in airtight containers even up to 30 days without excessivedimensional variations.

  • A. Carlucci
    Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 2022, 36(2(S4)): 157-165. https://doi.org/10.23812/j.biol.regul.homeost.agents.202236.2S4.17
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    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze and compare the interbracket distance in crowdedarches of different lingual appliances.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The stereolithographic models of the same patient with 4 differentlingual appliances were used to analyze the interbracket distance. 3Shape software was used to analyzethe interbracket distance for each arch segment and by means of a mathematical formula the forceexpressed by the different appliances in the different arches segments was calculated.RESULTS: Incognito, eBrace and Harmony reported an average interbracket distance of less than 6mm, while STb system showed an average values of 7 mm.CONCLUSION: The interbracket distance, which have an influence on the system stiffness androtational control of the teeth, is significantly greater in STb appliances compared to eBrace, Incognitoand Harmony appliances.