Nowadays, the objective of esthetic rehabilitation is not only to guarantee the results to the patients in terms of esthetic parameters but also the possibility to show the pre-visualization of possible results and therapy planning. Objective: The aim of this study is to apply the 3D-DPS digital planning technique, in the prosthetic treatment of a patient, to produces digitally the mockup for the digital previewing and esthetic crown and veneer for the final prosthetic treatment. Materials and methods: A case report participant is a young patient, a female, 26 years old, with no oral, periodontal, or systemic diseases. After a sign of an informed consent and an explication of a plan of treatment, technical intraoral and extraoral pictures and intraoral digital impressions were taken. The digital images improved from the 2D Smile Lynx Software and the scanner stereolithographic (STL) file was matched into the CAD Lynx to obtain a virtual previsualization of teeth and smile design. Then, the mockup was milled using a CAM system. Minimally invasive preparation was carried out on the enamel surface with the mockup as position guides. Finally, the esthetic CAD-CAM veneer and crown were produced digitally using the CAD Wax as a guide. Results: The use of the digital project and the pre-operative mockup allowed a perfect initial evaluation and a better understanding of the patient's treatment plan. Conclusions: The 3D digital planning technique is a new, predictably and minimally invasive technique. It allows diagnosis and a better communication with the patient. It helps to reduce the working time and the possible errors usually associated with the classical prosthodontic manual step.
The aim of this clinical study is to present an integrated digital project through the description of a clinical case, made entirely in digitized form, taking advantage of the opportunity offered by instrumental diagnostic software. A case report participant is a 65-year-old female patient presents with loss of diffuse bone support, caused by periodontal disease. After a sign of an informed consent and an explication of a plan of treatment, technical intraoral and extraoral pictures and intraoral digital impressions were taken. The digital images improved from the 2D Smile Lynx Software and the scanner stereolithographic (STL) file was matched into the CAD Lynx to obtain a virtual previsualization of teeth and smile design, and to mill the provisional and the definitive crowns. The digital prosthetic design allows the evaluation of the dental parameters in relation to the parameters of the patient's face for the new prosthetic project and the radiological examination using CBCT guides the insertion of the fixtures for the rehabilitation phase. The surgical and prosthetic design are subsequently integrated. The evaluation of the bone bases is carried out with a radiological diagnostic software for CT (Real Guide 5.0-3Diemme, Cantù-Italy) which can virtually design the implant insertion. The functional examination of the patient is carried out through an occlusion-postural examination that uses digital electromyographic assessments. The integrated digital protocol proposal inserts in the rehabilitation path the digital recording of the free mandibular movement, as well as the scan of the patient's face, data that will be integrated into the CAD software for the design of temporary and definitive prosthetic artifacts, made using the CAM method. This study showed guided implant placement and the application of fixed implant-supported prosthetic restorations carried out with a fully digital workflow, dependent on the functional digital evaluation of the patient's occlusion. The proposed protocol described the correct use of digitalization of clinical, surgical, and prosthetic procedures, and the matching of the data into a computerized environment, to improve team communication and to take advantage of the combination of collected data to not lose information using classic manual steps.
The aim of this study was to describe a standardized protocol for the creation of a definitive prosthetic rehabilitation supported by a reduced number of implants, achievable with a limited number of an optimized appointments. The proposed protocol provides only for 4 appointments to finalize the set work. During the first appointment, definitive impressions are taken in order to obtain the master models and plaster bars. The second appointment is the most important: the aesthetic and functional evaluations of the provisional prostheses are carried out and the plaster bars tested. During the third appointment the teeth test is performed, with the corresponding phonetic and functional test. In the fourth appointment the definitive prostheses are delivered and screwed. The fundamental aspect of prosthetic finalization is the simplification and standardization of protocols to obtain better control of all different steps and to reduce the number of appointments with the patient. The realization of a correct definitive prosthesis is the key to long-term success in implant rehabilitation and can improve the patient's quality of life in various aspects. By optimising the time and standardising the procedures, it is possible to make definitive prostheses for rehabilitations with a reduced number of implants of excellent quality in only 4 appointments.
The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to evaluate and compare oral hygiene levels in patients subjected to fixed metal-ceramic or stratified zirconia prostheses, either on teeth or on dental implants. Twenty patients, including 10 with metal-ceramic prostheses and 10 with stratified zirconia, were engaged for the study. Considering the prosthesis positioning phase as zero time, all patients were examined twice a year for a follow-up period of 3 years. During each session, to assess oral cavity state of health, both the Plaque Index (IP) and the Bleeding Index (BOP) were recorded. All patients were instructed in home hygiene maintenance and subjected to professional oral hygiene sessions customized according to prothesis type (on natural teeth or dental implants) and materials (metal ceramic or stratified zirconia). Statistically significant evidence was found in IP values, with an increase in the initial stages in zirconia prostheses and in the final stages in metal-ceramic ones. BOP levels showed a reduction during the follow-up period, but no statistically significant differences were found between examined groups. An adequate patient education in hygiene maintenance associated with professional oral hygiene sessions with special tools could positively affect fixed prostheses' maintenance, both on natural teeth and on dental implants.
The aim of this literature review is to assess the effectiveness of diode laser at a wavelength of 800-980 nm in addition to non-surgical periodontal therapy in periodontitis treatment. The authors performed an electronic research on Pubmed inserting as keywords: (laser OR laser therapy OR diode laser) and (periodontitis OR periodontal disease). The field has been narrowed to select only Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) performed from 2010 to 2020. The result of this research was 84 articles, of which eight were included in the review because they respect the inclusion criteria. The clinical, immunological, and microbiological parameters studied in the various clinical random trials were analysed. It has been shown that four out of eight studies have achieved greater benefits, in terms of clinical parameters, with the use of diode laser compared to Scaling and Root Planing. However, the greater increase in clinical parameters in diode laser-treated patients compared to the control group was mainly detected in the short term rather than in the long term. In terms of microbiological parameters, no improvement was detected after six months. Only one study reported six-month improvements in immunological parameters in patients treated with DL compared to the Scaling and Root Planing only group. In conclusion, considering the limitations of this review of literature, there is no evidence that the diode laser at 800-980 nm in addition to non-surgical periodontal therapy is more effective than SRP alone in the long term.
Mast cells play important roles in the maintenance of many physiological functions as well as in the pathophysiology of diseases. Mast cells are involved in the inflammatory mechanisms of many systemic diseases. In this pandemic period, their role in physiological and pathological host inflammatory reactions in tissue disruption following SARS-CoV-2 infection has been stressed. A review of the literature was carried out by entering the key words "Mast Cells" AND "Oral Diseases" AND "Role of Mast Cells in Periodontitis". The results show us that mast cells are definitely involved in many oral diseases including periodontitis. Further in vivo and in vitro studies are needed to further investigate the specific role of the cells in physiological and pathological inflammation.
The present study describes an innovative procedure for resolving implant-prosthetic cases in patients with edentulous special needs. In 2017 a 56-year-old female patient came to the Department of Dentistry of Vita-Salute San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy, requiring implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of the dental arches given the difficulty in wearing removable prostheses. The first level radiological examinations were evaluated, two technical photographs were taken with specific reference, the 2D Digital Smile Design (Smile Design) was then carried out, the provisional prosthesis was performed and the CBCT requested with repere and provisional prostheses to realize the computerized implant project and an atraumatic flapless guided surgery. Professional oral hygiene sessions were performed quarterly, and the 3-year follow-up revealed no complications affecting the prosthetic or implant component. We can therefore conclude that the proposed method, exploiting digital technologies and flows and minimally invasive flapless surgical methods, can be considered elective in the treatment of patients with special needs.
The aim of this article is to describe how, during the provisional and definitive prosthetic phases, using new digital technologies, it is possible to improve the ergonomics of the prosthetist's work and reduce the discomfort of patients, subjecting them to the fewest possible appointments at the dentist. The proposal of a full digital protocol, described by the following case report, for the realization of a definitive prosthetic rehabilitation supported by a reduced number of implants, in fact, allows to considerably reduce the number of appointments and reduce any bias. A 67-year-old male patient presents for the first visit to the Department of Dentistry of the San Raffaele Hospital, wearing a removable upper prosthesis and with the request to heal the aesthetic and functional situation through prosthetics fixed. An initial panoramic radiograph was performed, intra and extra oral photos were taken and also intraoral impressions. A stereo-lithographic models are obtained from intraoral scans, and two total prostheses, upper and lower, were packaged for the provisional post-surgical phase was performed. In accordance with the All-on-4 method 8 implant fixtures were placed. For the final prosthetic phase, the patient underwent only two operative sessions. In the first session, scans were taken with the provisionals in situ, of the patient's mucous membranes and with the Scan-abutments in place. In the second session using specific CADSoftware the matching of the STL files of the three scans were created, the opposing arches of the patient were related on a digital articulator, and the milled titanium bars were immediately constructed and finished with the resin. Finally, the definitive prostheses were delivered to the patient without any other test. Digital technology has allowed a clear reduction in working times and costs and has allowed the reduction of stress for patients who undergo invasive and extensive treatments to recover aesthetics and function, and for clinicians who must manage complex cases with fewer appointments possible.
Limited data are available on the clinical outcomes of patients with edentulism treated with predominantly monolithic zirconia fixed complete dentures (FCDs) compared to traditional restoration materials. The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in terms of complications and failures of definitive full-arch implant rehabilitations made in metal-acrylic versus those made in monolithic zirconia with porcelain veneering limited to non-functional areas. This retrospective clinical study included 50 patients treated between January 2015 and December 2018, with 222 implants inserted in fifty edentulous jaws. All patients were treated with immediately loaded full-arch fixed prostheses (22 maxillary; 28 mandibular) each supported by four to six implants (two/four axial, two distally tilted). All 25 zirconia prostheses were predominantly monolithic with ceramic veneering limited to non-functional areas. The primary outcome measures were prosthetic success of the definitive restoration and implant survival. The secondary outcome measures were full mouth plaque score, full mouth bleeding score, peri-implant probing depths and periimplant keratinized tissue. All implants and prostheses analyzed had a minimum of 2 years of followup. No chipping of the veneered facial porcelain or other technical complication was observed over the study period achieving a prosthesis survival and success rate of 100%. No implants were lost, achieving a 100% survival rate. Bleeding on probing was positive in 33% and 13% of probing sites for metal-acrylic prosthesis and zirconia prosthesis, respectively (p = 0.0445). Plaque index was positive in 76% and 53% of probing sites for metal-acrylic prosthesis and zirconia prosthesis, respectively (p = 0.0491). Mean probing depth was 1.74mm (SD 0.89mm) for the 106 implants supporting metal-acrylic prosthesis and 1.52mm (SD 0.63mm) for the 116 implants supporting zirconia prosthesis (p=0.0412). No other statistically significant differences were found between the two groups. The results of this retrospective evaluation showed that predominantly monolithic zirconia is a feasible alternative to the conventional metal framework acrylic for full arch implant-supported prosthesis. The restauration material did not influence the failure rate and complication risk of both prosthesis and implants.
Chlorhexidine is defined as biocompatible, which is why it is used as a mouthrinse for the patient before starting dental procedures (2). It has the ability to bind well to teeth and mucous membranes and is released for twelve hours, which is why it is used as a treatment for gingivitis and also in post-operative wound healing. The long-term side effects of chlorhexidine are pigmentations. To remedy this, various types of antidiscoloration have been tried out over time. Nowadays there are other types of anti-discoloration systems such as, for example, in our study we used a test group containing an anti-discoloration system called SPPD. A single-center, prospective, double-blind randomized clinical trial on 84 patients. The investigated treatments consisted of 4 mouthwashes (CHX 0.12% SPDD alcohol free; CHX 0.20% SPDD alcohol free; CHX 0.12% alcohol free with ADS; CHX 0.20% alcohol free with ADS). Despite the limitations of the study, all the mouthwashes tested showed good efficacy in reducing the amount of plaque. Comparing the two experimental concentrations (0.12% and 0.20%) tested here demonstrates that the 0.20% chlorhexidine concentration slightly surpasses its 0.12% equivalent with regard to the PI and BI parameters. The SPDD is an innovative anti-discoloration system and gives the mouthwash a great taste.
With the beginning of the twenty-first century, population aging has emerged as a major worldwide phenomenon. The dentist must respond to this demographic change by taking into consideration the possibility of restoring oral function in the elderly patient with the use of dental implants. This article aims to provide a narrative review of the literature regarding the implant survival rate in geriatric patients and the relative importance and advantages of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation through a scientific analysis of the literature through online databases and dental journals. Tooth loss can have a significant impact on patients' oral function and significantly affects quality of life, self-esteem, and nutritional status. Although many studies in the past have reported that implant success is age-dependent, more recent studies suggest that they are safe and predictable for geriatric patients, improving quality of life, with similar results to those of younger age groups. Advanced age does not necessarily represent a contraindication for implant placement and osseointegration and success is influenced by patient and site-specific factors. Aging is a process that affects each patient differently, consequently, there should be a specific therapeutic approach for everyone, which must consider the functional and cognitive status of the patient, his medical condition, and his social situation-economic and motivational.