J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2021 Mar-Apr;35(2 Suppl. 1):195-204. doi: 10.23812/21-2supp1-20.

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Graphene-doped Poly(methyl-methacrylate) as an enhanced biopolymer for medical device and dental implant

Lorusso F1, Inchingolo F2, Greco Lucchina A3, Scogna G1, Scarano A1,3.

Author information

1  Department of Innovative Technologies in Medicine & Dentistry, University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy.
2  Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy.
3  Oral Surgery Unit, University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy.


Graphene-doping procedure represents a useful procedure to improve the mechanical, physical and biological response of several PMMA-derived polymers and biomaterials for dental applications. The aim of the study was to evaluate measure water sorption, water solubility and tolerance trough the rabbit pyrogen testing pyrogen detection of Graphene doped Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) compared with PMMA as potential materials for dental implant device. A total of 8 aged and unaged samples Graphene doped PMMA and PMMA were tested for water sorption and water solubility of the specimens. The experimental condition was evaluated according to the ISO 20795-1:2013 protocol. The biopolymer tolerance was evaluated in vivo on animals through the pyrogen detection test, acute intracutaneous and systemic irritation test. After wet conditioning both of Graphene doped PMMA and PMMA reported an increase of the weight. All the experimental samples showed a drastic low level of water sorption and solubility. Graphene doped PMMA unaged specimens showed a stability of physical and optical feature after the treatment. The Graphene doped PMMA has not shown pyrogens, an intradermal and systemic irritant effect on animals. The Graphene-doped PMMA satisfy the standard requirements and provide a physical and optical stability of the compound after the treatment. Further in vivo findings are required for future clinical application of the compound.


Graphene-doped PMMA, solubility, water sorption

Publication type

  • Clinical Trial

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