J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. Mar-Apr 2021;35(2):441-456. doi: 10.23812/20-743-A.


Consensus paper on postural dysfunction: recommendations for prevention, diagnosis and therapy

Author information

1  Unit of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Oral, Medical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of G. d’Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Italy.
2  Department of Biomedical, Dental Sciences and Morphological and Functional Images, University of Messina, Italy.
3  Italian Ministry of Health, Rome, Italy.
4  Department for Life Quality Studies, University of Bologna, Rimini, Italy.
5  Department of Anatomy, Histology, Legal Medicine, and Orthopaedics, Sapienza, University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
6  Department of Oral, Medical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of G. d’Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Italy.
7  National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Rome, Italy.
8  Italian Society of Pediatrics, Rome, Italy.
9  Ophthalmic Clinic, SS Annunziata Hospital of Chieti, University of G. d’Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Italy.
10 Telematic University “San Raffaele,” Rome, Italy.
11 UCM-HEI Campus LUDES of Lugano; Switzerland.
12 Otolaryngology Unit, Sapienza, University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
13 CIES, Bandol, France.
14 Comunication Disorders Department ARIEL University, ARIEL, Israel.
15 The International Federation for Proprioceptive and Biomechanical Therapies, Sassenberg, Germany.
16 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Jordan.
17 Department of Neuroscience and Anatomy, University Medical Center of Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Holland.
18 IRIS Group, “Physiopathologie de la Vision et Motricité Binoculaire” CNRS FR2022, Université Paris Descartes, UFR Biomédicale, Paris, France.
19 Romanian Association of Posturology, Romania.
20 University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Gr. T. Popa,” Iasi, Romania.
21 International Posturology Association, University de Valenciennes, Spain.
22 University of Study of Urbino Carlo Bo, Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Urbino, Italy.


Good fundamentals of posture and balance are essential for the efficient performance of both simple daily tasks and more complex movement patterns. In particular, postural balance is the ability to keep the body in equilibrium and to regain balance after the shift of body segments: postural control mechanisms of integration of the visual, vestibular and foot afferential channels contribute to this. This document provides recommendations based on scientific evidence, clinical practice, and consensus between experts concerning the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of postural dysfunction at the three stages of life as the developmental age, adult age, and old age > 65 years and follows the “National Guidelines on Classification and Measuring of Posture and its Dysfunctions” per the Italian Ministry of Health (December 2017). The paper answers four main questions: i) “Which measures can be adopted to prevent postural dysfunctions?” ii) “What can we do in order to make a correct diagnosis of postural dysfunction?” iii) “What are the correct treatment programs for postural dysfunctions?” iv) Which professional competencies and experiences are useful for preventing, diagnosing and treating postural dysfunctions? By the Consensus of the Experts and the scientific evidence, emerge that the approach to postural dysfunctions requires a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary team. Furthermore, rehabilitation treatment interventions must be specific to the age groups that have been indicated, to consider the integration of the main systems and subsystems of postural control that change with age.


balance, child, elderly, exercise, foot, posture, rehabilitation, scoliosis

Publication type

  • Journal Article

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