Coronavirus-19 (SARS-CoV-2) induces acute severe lung inflammation via IL-1 causing cytokine storm in COVID-19: a promising inhibitory strategy.
- Postgraduate Medical School, University of Chieti, 66013 Chieti, Italy.
- School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy.
- Molecular Medicine, Department of Morphology, Surgery, Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
- University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
- Department of Microbiology, University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.
- School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.
- Centro Medico “Mai più Dolore”, Pescara, Italy.
- Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00100 Roma, Italy.
SARS-Cov-2 infection causes local and systemic inflammation mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-2 eicosanoid products with metabolic dysfunction and tissue damage that can lead to patient death. These effects are primarily induced by IL-1 cytokines, which are involved in the elevation of hepatic acute phase proteins and fever. IL-1 has a broad spectrum of biological activities and participates in both innate and acquired immunity. In infections, IL-1 induces gene expression and synthesis of several cytokines/chemokines in both macrophages and mast cells (MCs). The activation of MCs triggers the secretion of mediators stored in the granules, and the de novo synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In microorganism infections, the release of IL-1 macrophage acts on adhesion molecules and endothelial cells leading to hypotension and septic shock syndrome. IL-1 activated by SARS-CoV-2 stimulates the secretion of TNF, IL-6 and other cytokines, a pro-inflammatory complex that can lead to cytokine storm and be deleterious in both lung and systemically. In SARS-CoV-2 septic shock, severe metabolic cellular abnormalities occur which can lead to death. Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 induces IL-1 in macrophages and MCs causing the induction of gene expression and activation of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. Since IL-1 is toxic, its production from ubiquitous MCs and macrophages activated by SARS-CoV-2 can also provokes both gastrointestinal and brain disorders. Furthermore, in these immune cells, IL-1 also elevates nitric oxide, and the release of inflammatory arachidonic acid products such as prostaglndins and thromboxane A2. All together these effects can generate cytokine storm and be the primary cause of severe inflammation with respiratory distress and death. Although, IL-1 administered in low doses may be protective; when it is produced in high doses in infectious diseases can be detrimental, Therefore, IL-1 blockade has been studied in many human diseases including sepsis, resulting that blocking it is absolutely necessary. This definitely nurtures hope for a new effective therapeutic treatment. Recently, two interesting anti-IL-1 cytokines have been widely described: IL-37 and IL-1Ra. IL-37, by blocking IL-1, has been observed to have anti-inflammatory action in rodents, in vivo and in transfected cells. It has been reported that IL-37 is a very powerful protein which inhibits inflammation and its inhibition can be a valid therapeutic strategy. IL-37 is a natural suppressor of inflammation that is generated through a caspase-1 that cleaves pro-IL-37 into mature IL-37 which translocates to the nucleus and inhibits the transcription of pro-inflammatory genes; while IL-1Ra inhibits inflammation by binding IL-1 to its IL-1R (receptor). We firmly believe that blocking IL-1 with an anti-inflammatory cytokine such as IL-37 and/or IL-1Ra is an effective valid therapy in a wide spectrum of inflammatory disorders including SARS-CoV-2-induced COVID-19. Here, we propose for the first time that IL-37, by blocking IL-1, may have an important role in the therapy of COVID-19.
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COVID-19; IL-1; IL-6; SARS-CoV-2; immunity; lung inflammation; macrophages and mast cells