J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2018 Sep-Oct;32(5):1323-1328.

Microbiological results of improvement in periodontal condition by administration of oral probiotics.

F. Inchingolo1,2,3,4, G. Dipalma2,3,5, N. Cirulli2, S. Cantore2,3,5, R.S. Saini1, V. Altini5, L. Santacroce6, A. Ballini2,3,4,5, R. Saini1

Author information

1 Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy
2 City Unity College, Athens, Greece
3 BPP School of Health, University Faculty of Dentistry, Birmingham, United Kingdom
4 World Academy of Growth Factors and Stem Cells in Dentistry, Athens, Greece
5 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy
6 Ionian Department, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy


Oral bacteria that degrade sulphur-containing amino acids (cysteine, cystine, and methionine) produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs = hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulphide) highly correlated with halitosis. When these bacteria are given the right environment, i.e. periodontal disease, cariogenic biofilm or food source they can grow in number very quickly and will start to convert proteins to VSC that, together with volatile fatty acids are largely responsible for oral malodor. Recently, the prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases using various probiotics has been attempted. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotics based on in vitro analysis, such as antibacterial activity, and to evaluate the neutralizing effect of probiotics on halitosis, the levels of VSCs were measured by gas chromatography.

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