JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL REGULATORS & HOMEOSTATIC AGENTS Vol. 32, no. 3, 449-454 (2018)
New concepts in neuroinflammation: mast cells pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine mediators.
A. Caraffa 1, C. Conti 2, C. D’Ovidio 3, C.E. Gallenga 4, L. Tettamanti 5, F. Mastrangelo 6, G. Ronconi 7, S.K. Kritas 8 and Pio Conti 9
1 Department of Pharmacology, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
2 Department of Psychological, Health, and Territorial Sciences, University “G. d’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy
3 Section of Legal Medicine, Department of Medicine and Aging Sciences, “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti–Pescara, Italy
4 Department of Biomedical Sciences and Specialist Surgery, Section of Ophthalmology, University of Ferrara, Italy
5 Department of Medical and Morphological Science, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy
6 Department of Medical Science and Biotechnology, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy
7 UOS Clinica dei Pazienti del Territorio, Policlinico Gemelli, Rome, Italy
8 Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece
9 Immunology Division, Postgraduate Medical School, University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy
The activation of brain nociceptors and neurons may lead to neurogenic inflammation, an event that involves immune cells including mast cells (MCs). Microglia are similar to macrophages and secrete pro-inflammatory IL-1 family members and TNF. TNF is rapidly released (first 10 minutes from MC granules) and is subsequently secreted along with other pro-inflammatory cytokines with a new synthesis after several hours. MC-derived TNF is a very powerful pro-inflammatory cytokine which mediates sensitization of the meningeal nociceptors. Here, we report the involvement of MCs in neuroinflammation, the role of inflammatory cytokine IL-1 family members, and of TNF, as well as the potential inhibition of IL-37.